Mail.ru Online Service OAuth 2.0 Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

mail-ru_1882101c

 

Mail.ru Online Service OAuth 2.0 Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

 

(1) Domain:
mail.ru

 

 

“Mail.Ru Group (London Stock Exchange listed since November 5, 2010) is a Russian Internet company. It was started in 1998 as an e-mail service and went on to become a major corporate figure in the Russian-speaking segment of the Internet. As of 2013, according to comScore, websites owned by Mail.ru collectively had the largest audience in Russia and captured the most screen time. Mail.Ru’s sites reach approximately 86% of Russian Internet users on a monthly basis and the company is in the top 5 of largest Internet companies, based on the number of total pages viewed. Mail.ru controls the 3 largest Russian social networking sites. It operates the second and third most popular Russian social networking sites, Odnoklassniki and Moy Mir, respectively. Mail.ru holds 100% of shares of Russia’s most popular social network VKontakte and minority stakes in Qiwi, formerly OE Investments (15.04%). It also operates two instant messaging networks (Mail.Ru Agent and ICQ), an e-mail service and Internet portal Mail.ru, as well as a number of online games.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

“Mail.Ru — крупный коммуникационный портал российского Интернета, ежемесячная аудитория которого по данным на октябрь 2012 года превышает 31,9 млн человек. Ресурс занимает 52-е место по популярности в мире и 5-е — в России. Число работников составляет 2800 человек. Ресурс принадлежит инвестиционной группе Mail.Ru Group.” (Ru.Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Mail.ru web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.

 

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 


(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

Mail.Ru’s OAuth system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in OAuth system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Mail.Ru.

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),

“&response_type”=code,token…

“&scope”=get_user_info…

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “/oauth/authorize?” with parameter “&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://connect.mail.ru/oauth/authorize?response_type=token&client_id=667668&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fmy.kp.ru%2Flogin.do%3FreturnUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.tetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fpoems%252Fdistance.html [1]

 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

 

When a logged-in Mail.Ru user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto Mail.Ru and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

 

A logged-in Mail.Ru user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Mail.Ru would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from Mail.Ru to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Mail.Ru directly. The number of Mail.Ru’s OAuth client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, Mail.Ru’s OAuth system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Mail.Ru’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “http://biboying.lofter.com/“. We can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
kp.ru

 

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://my.kp.ru/login.do?returnUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fpoems%2Fdistance.html

 

Vulnerable URL from Mail.Ru that is related to kp.ru:
https://connect.mail.ru/oauth/authorize?response_type=code&client_id=667668&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fmy.kp.ru%2Flogin%2Fmailru.do%3FreturnUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fizh.kp.ru

 

POC:
https://connect.mail.ru/oauth/authorize?response_type=code&client_id=667668&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fmy.kp.ru%2Flogin.do%3FreturnUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.tetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fpoems%252Fdistance.html

 

 

POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yEB58S8WBI

 

Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/mailru-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html

 

 

(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well. After Covert Redirect was published, it is kept in some common databases such as SCIP, OSVDB, Bugtraq, and X-Force. Its scipID is 13185, while OSVDB reference number is 106567. Bugtraq ID: 67196. X-Force reference number is 93031.



 

Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/mail-ru-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/mail-ru-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability/
https://twitter.com/essayjeans/status/558974764958486528
https://tetraph.wordpress.com/2014/07/11/mail-ru-security-bugs/
https://computertechhut.wordpress.com/2014/07/05/mail-ru-security-bugs/
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/08/mailru-website-attack.html
http://whitehatpost.lofter.com/post/1cc773c8_706b6bf
http://ithut.tumblr.com/post/119493112323/securitypost-sicherheitslucke-in-oauth-2-0-und
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120144611948109/
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/08/mailru-website-attack.html

LinkedIn Online Service OAuth 2.0 Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

logolinkedin

 

LinkedIn Online Service OAuth 2.0 Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

 

(1) Domain:
linkedin.com

 

“LinkedIn /ˌlɪŋkt.ˈɪn/ is a business-oriented social networking service. Founded in December 2002 and launched on May 5, 2003, it is mainly used for professional networking. In 2006, LinkedIn increased to 20 million members. As of March 2015, LinkedIn reports more than 364 million acquired users in more than 200 countries and territories. The site is available in 24 languages, including Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Romanian, Russian, Turkish, Japanese, Czech, Polish, Korean, Indonesian, Malay, and Tagalog. As of 2 July 2013, Quantcast reports LinkedIn has 65.6 million monthly unique U.S. visitors and 178.4 million globally, a number that as of 29 October 2013 has increased to 184 million. In June 2011, LinkedIn had 33.9 million unique visitors, up 63 percent from a year earlier and surpassing MySpace. LinkedIn filed for an initial public offering in January 2011 and traded its first shares on May 19, 2011, under the NYSE symbol “LNKD”.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

LinkedIn web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.

 

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 

 


(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

Linkedin’s OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Linkedin.

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

LinkedIn replied with thanks and said that they “have published a blog post on how [they] intend to address [the problem].”

 

 

Blog address:
https://developer.linkedin.com/blog/register-your-oauth-2-redirect-urls

 

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “/oauth2/authorization?” with parameter “&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://www.linkedin.com/uas/oauth2/authorization?response_type=code&client_id=773svxj8m007qf&state=5316b8f3ea22a6.60933041&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inc.com%2Flogout%3Fret%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fpoems%2Fthatday.html [1]

 

When a logged-in Linkedin user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto Linkedin and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Linkedin would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from Linkedin to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Linkedin directly. The number of Linkedin’s OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Linkedin’s OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

At the same time, attackers could completely bypass Linkedin’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

It might be of Linkedin’s interest to patch up against such attacks.

 

 

 

(2.2) Use one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “http://homehut.lofter.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
inc.com

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://www.inc.com/logout?ret=http://www.tetraph.com/essayjeans/poems/thatday.html

 

Vulnerable URL from Linkedin that is related to inc.com:
https://www.linkedin.com/uas/oauth2/authorization?response_type=code&client_id=773svxj8m007qf&state=53169feb993957.93834988&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fdev-www.inc.com%2Fpatch%2Freflex%2Flib%2Flinkedin%2Fstartlogin.php

 

POC:
https://www.linkedin.com/uas/oauth2/authorization?response_type=code&client_id=773svxj8m007qf&state=5316b8f3ea22a6.60933041&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inc.com%2Flogout%3Fret%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fpoems%2Fthatday.html

 

 


POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iif6eq2cvso

 

Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/linkedin-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html

 

 

 

(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.



 

Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

 

 

 

 

Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/linkedin-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability/
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/07/linkedin-service-exploit.html
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/559169110106316800
https://webtechwire.wordpress.com/2014/06/07/linkedin-bugs/
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/07/linkedin-service-exploit.html
http://ithut.tumblr.com/post/119493922098/securitypost-itinfotech-continuan-los
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120144385617661/
https://computertechhut.wordpress.com/2014/06/11/linkedin-bugs/
http://itsecurity.lofter.com/post/1cfbf9e7_70608ba
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/linkedin-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability/

 

Alibaba Taobao OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

1688-taobao

 

Alibaba Taobao OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)




(1) Domain:
taobao.com

 

 

“Taobao (simplified Chinese: 淘宝网; traditional Chinese: 淘寶網; pinyin: Táobǎo Wǎng; literally: “searching for treasure website”) is a Chinese website for online shopping similar to eBay and Amazon that is operated in China by Alibaba Group. Founded by Alibaba Group on May 10, 2003, Taobao Marketplace facilitates consumer-to-consumer (C2C) retail by providing a platform for small businesses and individual entrepreneurs to open online stores that mainly cater to consumers in Chinese-speaking regions (Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) and also abroad. With around 760 million product listings as of March 2013, Taobao Marketplace is one of the world’s top 10 most visited websites according to Alexa. For the year ended March 31, 2013, the combined gross merchandise volume (GMV) of Taobao Marketplace and Tmall.com exceeded 1 trillion yuan.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Taobao web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.



The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Taobao.

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope”=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “/authorize?” with parameter “&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html [1]

 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

When a logged-in Taobao user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto Taobao and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

A logged-in Taobao user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Taobao would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from Taobao to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Taobao directly. The number of Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Taobao’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “https://computerpitch.wordpress.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
sohu.com

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do?bru=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

Vulnerable URL from Taobao that is related to sohu.com:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://sohu.com

 

POC:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

 

 

 

(2.3) The following URLs have the same vulnerabilities.
https://login.taobao.com/member/login.jhtml?sign=8uBo%2FBShyXsFVd4q%2FREkfg%3D%3D&timestamp=2014-03-19+09%3A24%3A22&sub=true&style=mini_top&need_sign=top&full_redirect=true&from=mini_top&from_encoding=utf-8&TPL_redirect_url=https%3A%2F%2Foauth.taobao.com%2Fauthorize%3Fstate%3D1%26response_type%3Dcode%26client_id%3D21112101%26redirect_uri%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.paidai.com%252Fuser%252Foauth_taobao.php

 

 

POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZVCZK03-Rw



Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html







(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.



 

Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore.
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/









Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-bug
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-service-exploit.html
https://twitter.com/essayjeans/status/558976811573321728
https://webtechwire.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/taobao-vulnerability/
http://inzeed.tumblr.com/post/119493913816/securitypost-itinfotech-continuan-los
http://essayjeans.lofter.com/post/1cc7459a_7069892
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-service-exploit.html
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/2346030512014463745630/
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-oauth-2-0
https://hackertopic.wordpress.com/2014/06/01/alibaba-taobao-bug/

 

 

 

===========

 

 


阿里巴巴 淘宝 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向)




(1) 域名:

taobao.com



” 淘宝网是亚太地区较大的网络零售商圈,由阿里巴巴集团在2003年5月10日投资创立。淘宝网现在业务跨越C2C(个人对个人)、B2C(商家对个人)两 大部分。截止2014年,淘宝网注册会员超5亿人每天有超过1.2亿的活跃用户,在线商品数达到10亿件,淘宝网和天猫平台的交易额总额超过了1.5万 亿。” (百度百科)







(2) 漏洞描述:

阿里巴巴 淘宝 网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。




这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。




 


(2.1) 漏洞细节:

Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, Taobao 对 OAuth 2.0 系统的 parameter “&redirect_uri“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 Taobao 的 URL跳转 攻击。

 

 

与此同时,这个漏洞可以用下面的参数来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token,code…

“&scope”=get_user_info,email…

 

 

它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

漏洞地点 “/authorize?”,参数”&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html [1]

 

 

 

同意三方 App 前:

当一个已经登录的 Taobao 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 “&redirect_uri” 的 URL。

 

 

如果没有登录的Taobao 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。

 

 

 

同意三方 App 后:

已经登录的 Taobao 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。

 

 

如果 Taobao 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的Taobao的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)。

 

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Taobao 一般会允许属于已被验证过得三方 App domain 的所有 URLs。 然而,这些 URLs 可以被操控。比如,参数 “&redirect_uri” 是被三方 App 设置的,但攻击者可以修改此参数的值。

 

 

因此,Taobao 用户意识不到他会被先从 Taobao 跳转到第三方 App 的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 Taobao 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。

 

 

因为 Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。

 

 

在同意三方 App 之前,Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 Taobao 的 URL跳转 验证系统。

 

 

 

 

(2.2) 用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 “http://lifegreen.lofter.com/“. 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code。

 

 

下面是一个有漏洞的三方 domain:
sohu.com

 

 

这个 domain 有漏洞的 URL:
http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do?bru=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

 

Taobao 与 sohu.com 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://sohu.com

 

 

 

POC:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 



(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向?

隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS – Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向也可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF – Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。







Alibaba Alipay Online Website OAuth 2.0 Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

Alipay-Wallet-Reaches-190-Mn-Annual-Active-Users

 

Alibaba Alipay Online Website OAuth 2.0 Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

 

 

(1) Domain:
alipay.com

 

“Alipay.com is a third-party online payment platform with no transaction fees. It was launched in China in 2004 by Alibaba Group and its founder Jack Ma. According to analyst research report, Alipay has the biggest market share in China with 300 million users and control of just under half of China’s online payment market in February 2014. According to Credit Suisse, the total value of online transactions in China grew from an insignificant size in 2008 to around RMB 4 trillion (US$660 billion) in 2012. Alipay provides an escrow service, in which consumers can verify whether they are happy with goods they have bought before releasing money to the seller. This service was offered for what the company says are China’s weak consumer protection laws, which have reduced consumer confidence in C2C and even B2C quality control.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Alipay web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.

 

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.


 
 
 
(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

Alipay’s OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&goto” in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Alipay.

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.).

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

Before acceptance of third-party application:

When a logged-in Alipay user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&goto”.

If a user has not logged onto Alipay and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

After acceptance of third-party application:

A logged-in Alipay user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 
 
 

(2.1.1) Before acceptance of the third-party application, Alipay’s OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Alipay’s authentication system and attack more easily.

Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “http://lifegreen.lofter.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
cjcp.com.cn

If users click URL [2], attacks happen.




POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhqwC9RQl44


Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-alipays-oauth-20-covert.html






 

(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well. After Covert Redirect was published, it is kept in some common databases such as SCIP, OSVDB, Bugtraq, and X-Force. Its scipID is 13185, while OSVDB reference number is 106567. Bugtraq ID: 67196. X-Force reference number is 93031.



Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore.
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/










Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-alipays-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-information-leakage-open-redirect/
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/07/alibaba-alipay-bug.html
http://whitehatpost.lofter.com/post/1cc773c8_72e71f9
https://vulnerabilitypost.wordpress.com/2014/06/02/alibaba-alipay-exploit/
https://twitter.com/yangziyou/status/614368472705818624
blog.163.com/tetraph/blog/static/2346030512014471384217
http://whitehatview.tumblr.com/post/119488487851/securitypost-itinfotech-falha-de-seguranca#notes
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/07/alibaba-alipay-bug.html
https://computertechhut.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/alibaba-alipay-exploit/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/alibaba-alipays-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-information-leakage-open-redirect/

 

 

 


=============

 

阿里巴巴 支付宝 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向)





(1) 域名:
alipay.com


” 支付宝(中国)网络技术有限公司是国内领先的第三方支付平台,致力于提供“简单、安全、快速”的支付解决方案。支付宝公司从2004年建立开始,始终以 “信任”作为产品和服务的核心。旗下有“支付宝”与“支付宝钱包”两个独立品牌。自2014年第二季度开始成为当前全球最大的移动支付厂商。支付宝主要提 供支付及理财服务。包括网购担保交易、网络支付、转账、信用卡还款、手机充值、水电煤缴费、个人理财等多个领域。在进入移动支付领域后,为零售百货、电影 院线、连锁商超和出租车等多个行业提供服务。还推出了余额宝等理财服务。支付宝与国内外180多家银行以及VISA、MasterCard国际组织等机构 建立战略合作关系,成为金融机构在电子支付领域最为信任的合作伙伴。” (百度百科)







(2) 漏洞描述:

阿里巴巴 支付宝网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。



这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。

 

 

 

 

(2.1) 漏洞细节:

Alipay 的 OAuth 2.0 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, Alipay 对 OAuth 2.0 系统的 parameter “&goto“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 Alipay 的 URL跳转 攻击。

 

 

与此同时,这个漏洞可以用来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里),

它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

漏洞地点 “login/express.htm?”,参数”&goto”, e.g.

https://auth.alipay.com/login/express.htm?goto=https%3A%2F%2Fmemberexprod.alipay.com%2Fauthorize%2FuserAuthQuickLoginAction.htm%3Fe_i_i_d%3D41da904223e68d291bfb0eecbff264e1 [1]

 

同意三方 App 前:

 

当一个已经登录的 Alipay 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 “&goto” 的 URL。

 

如果没有登录的Alipay 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。

 

同意三方 App 后:

 

已经登录的 Alipay 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。

 

如果 Alipay 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的Alipay的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)

 

 

 

(2.1.1) 因为 Alipay 的 OAuth 2.0 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。

 

在同意三方 App 之前,Alipay 的 OAuth 2.0 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 Alipay 的 URL跳转 验证系统。

 

用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 “http://canghaixiao.tumblr.com/“. 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code。

 

下面是一个有漏洞的三方 domain:
cjcp.com.cn

 

这个 domain 有漏洞的 URL:
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=pay&a=login&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Foutings%2F%25E5%2590%25AC%25E6%25B5%25B7.html

 

攻击者在浏览器输入 URL,
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=pay&a=login&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Foutings%2F%25E5%2590%25AC%25E6%25B5%25B7.html

 

 

然后,攻击者可以得到 URL,

https://auth.alipay.com/login/express.htm?goto=https%3A%2F%2Fmemberexprod.alipay.com%2Fauthorize%2FuserAuthQuickLoginAction.htm%3Fe_i_i_d%3D41da904223e68d291bfb0eecbff264e1 [2]

 

如果用户点击 URL [2], 攻击发生。

 


POC 视频:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhqwC9RQl44

 

 

 

博客细节:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-alipays-oauth-20-covert.html

 

 





(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向?

隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS – Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向还可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF – Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。它的 scipID ID 是 13185; OSVDB ID 是 106567; Bugtraq ID 是 67196; X-Force ID 是 93031。





 

相关文章:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-alipays-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-information-leakage-open-redirect/
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/07/alibaba-alipay-bug.html
http://whitehatpost.lofter.com/post/1cc773c8_72e71f9
https://vulnerabilitypost.wordpress.com/2014/06/02/alibaba-alipay-exploit/
https://twitter.com/yangziyou/status/614368472705818624
blog.163.com/tetraph/blog/static/2346030512014471384217
http://whitehatview.tumblr.com/post/119488487851/securitypost-itinfotech-falha-de-seguranca#notes
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/07/alibaba-alipay-bug.html
https://computertechhut.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/alibaba-alipay-exploit/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/alibaba-alipays-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-information-leakage-open-redirect/

Sina Weibo OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

china

 

Sina Weibo OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

 

 

(1) Domain:
weibo.com

 

 

“Sina Weibo (NASDAQ: WB) is a Chinese microblogging (weibo) website. Akin to a hybrid of Twitter and Facebook, it is one of the most popular sites in China, in use by well over 30% of Internet users, with a market penetration similar to the United States’ Twitter. It was launched by SINA Corporation on 14 August 2009, and has 503 million registered users as of December 2012. About 100 million messages are posted each day on Sina Weibo. In March 2014, Sina Corporation announced a spinoff of Weibo as a separate entity and filed an IPO under the symbol WB. Sina retains 56.9% ownership in Weibo. The company began trading publicly on April 17, 2014. “Weibo” (微博) is the Chinese word for “microblog”. Sina Weibo launched its new domain name weibo.com on 7 April 2011, deactivating and redirecting from the old domain, t.sina.com.cn to the new one. Due to its popularity, the media sometimes directly uses “Weibo” to refer to Sina Weibo. However, there are other Chinese microblogging/weibo services including Tencent Weibo, Sohu Weibo and NetEase Weibo.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Weibo web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.

 

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

Weibo’s OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Weibo.

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope”=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “oauth2/authorize?” with parameter “&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code [1]

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

When a logged-in Weibo user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto Weibo and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

A logged-in Weibo user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

(2.1.1) Weibo would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from Weibo to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Weibo directly. The number of Weibo’s OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, Weibo’s OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Weibo’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “https://biyiniao.wordpress.com/“. We can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
cjcp.com.cn

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=sina&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

Vulnerable URL from Weibo that is related to cjcp.com.cn:
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code

 

POC:
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2F%3Fm%3Duser%26a%3DotherLogin%26type%3Dsina%26furl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fseasons%252F%2525E7%2525A5%2525AD%2525E6%252598%2525A5.html&response_type=code [2]

 

(2.2) Another method for attackers.


Attackers enter the following URL in browser,
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=sina&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

Then, attackers can get URL below,
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code [3]

 

If users click URL [3], the same thing will happen as URL [2].

 

 

 

 

POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKozHxrk4js

 

 

Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/sina-weibo-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html

 

 



(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.



 

 

Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

 

 

Related Articles:
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/sinas-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-information-leakage-open-redirect/
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/sina-weibo-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-information-leakage-open-redirect/
https://redysnowfox.wordpress.com/2014/08/02/sina-exploit/
http://qianqiuxue.tumblr.com/post/118901060925/itinfotech-covert#notes
http://webtechhut.blogspot.com/2014/07/sina-bug.html
https://twitter.com/yangziyou/status/614745661704015873
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/2346030512014463356551/
http://biboying.lofter.com/post/1cc9f4f5_706b6c3
http://frenchairing.blogspot.fr/2014/07/sina-hacking.html
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/sina-weibo-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-information-leakage-open-redirect/
https://biyiniao.wordpress.com/2014/06/07/sina-research/

 

 

==========

 

新浪 微博 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向)





(1) 域名:
weibo.com

 

” 新浪微博是一个由新浪网推出,提供微型博客服务类的社交网站。用户可以通过网页、WAP页面、手机客户端、手机短信、彩信发布消息或上传图片。新浪可以把 微博理解为“微型博客”或者“一句话博客”。用户可以将看到的、听到的、想到的事情写成一句话,或发一张图片,通过电脑或者手机随时随地分享给朋友,一起 分享、讨论;还可以关注朋友,即时看到朋友们发布的信息” (百度百科)

 

 

(2) 漏洞描述:

新浪 微博 网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。

 

 

这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。


(2.1) 漏洞细节:
Weibo 的 OAuth 2.0 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, Weibo 对 OAuth 2.0 系统的 parameter “&redirect_uri“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 Weibo 的 URL跳转 攻击。

与此同时,这个漏洞可以用下面的参数来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token,code…

“&scope”=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…

 

它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

漏洞地点 “oauth2/authorize?”,参数”&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code [1]

 

同意三方 App 前:

当一个已经登录的 Weibo 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 “&redirect_uri” 的 URL。


如果没有登录的 Weibo 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。

 

同意三方 App 后:

已经登录的 Weibo 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。

 

如果 Weibo 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的Weibo的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)。

 


(2.1.1) Weibo 一般会允许属于已被验证过得三方 App domain 的所有 URLs。 然而,这些 URLs 可以被操控。比如,参数 “&redirect_uri” 是被三方 App 设置的,但攻击者可以修改此参数的值。

 

因此,Weibo 用户意识不到他会被先从 Weibo 跳转到第三方 App 的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 Weibo 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。

 

因为 Weibo 的 OAuth 2.0 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。

 

在同意三方 App 之前,Weibo 的 OAuth 2.0 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 Weibo 的 URL跳转 验证系统。

 

 

用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 “http://tetraphlike.lofter.com/“. 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code。

 

 

下面是一个有漏洞的三方 domain:
cjcp.com.cn

 

 

这个 domain 有漏洞的 URL:
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=Weibo&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A2%258E%25E5%25A4%258F.html

 

 

Weibo 与 cjcp.com.cn 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code

 

 

POC:
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2F%3Fm%3Duser%26a%3DotherLogin%26type%3Dsina%26furl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fseasons%252F%2525E7%2525A5%2525AD%2525E6%252598%2525A5.html&response_type=code [2]

 

 



(2.2) 攻击的另一个方法.


攻击者在浏览器输入 URL,
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=sina&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

然后,攻击者可以得到 URL,
https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=2021435350&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dsina&response_type=code [3]

 

如果用户点击 URL [3], 发生的事情和 URL [2] 一样.

 

 




(2.3)下面的 URLs 有同样的漏洞.
https://api.t.sina.com.cn/oauth2/authorize?client_id=496934491&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.paidai.com%2Fsiteuser%2Foauth_sina.php%3Ffrom%3Dweibo&response_type=code

 

 

POC 视频:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKozHxrk4js

 

 

博客细节:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/sina-weibo-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html

 

 

 

 

(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向?

隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS – Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

 

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向还可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF – Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。它的 scipID ID 是 13185; OSVDB ID 是 106567; Bugtraq ID 是 67196; X-Force ID 是 93031。

 

 

 

 



Paypal Online Website OAuth 2.0 Covert Redirect (OpenIDconnect) Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

paypal_big-1

 

Paypal Online Website OAuth 2.0 Covert Redirect (OpenIDconnect) Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)




(1) Domain:
paypal.com

 

“PayPal is an American worldwide online payments system. Online money transfers serve as electronic alternatives to traditional paper methods like checks and money orders. PayPal is one of the world’s largest internet payment companies.The company operates as an acquirer, performing payment processing for online vendors, auction sites and other commercial users, for which it charges a fee. Established in 1998, PayPal (NASDAQ: PYPL) had its IPO in 2002, and became a wholly owned subsidiary of eBay later that year. In 2014, PayPal moved $228 billion in 26 currencies across more than 190 nations, generating a total revenue of $7.9 billion (44% of eBay’s total profits). The same year, eBay announced plans to spin-off PayPal into an independent company the following year.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Paypal web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks. 



The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7. 

 
 

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

PayPal’s OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to PayPal.

 

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters,

“&response_type”=code,token…

“&scope”=email,user_birthday,user_likes…

 

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 
 
 
 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

When a logged-in PayPal user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto PayPal and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 
 

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

A logged-in PayPal user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 
 
 

 

 

(2.1.1) PayPal would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks. 

 

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from PayPal to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from PayPal directly. The number of PayPal’s OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, PayPal’s OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass PayPal’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

 

It might be of PayPal’s interest to patch up against such attacks. 

 
 
 

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “http://essayjeanslike.lofter.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
constantcontact.com

 
 
 
 
 



POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TVtLA1YzIBs


Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/paypal-oauth-20-openidconnect-covert.html





(3) What is Covert Redirect? 

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well. After Covert Redirect was published, it is kept in some common databases such as SCIP, OSVDB, Bugtraq, and X-Force. Its scipID is 13185, while OSVDB reference number is 106567. Bugtraq ID: 67196.  X-Force reference number is 93031.

 
 
 
 



 

Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. 
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/









Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/paypal-oauth-2-0-openidconnect-covert-redirect-vulnerability/
http://ithut.tumblr.com/post/119493112323/securitypost-sicherheitslucke-in-oauth-2-0-und
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/559164333721001984
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/paypal-oauth-2-0-openidconnect-covert-redirect-vulnerability/
http://computerobsess.blogspot.sg/2014/05/paypal-bug.html
https://hackertopic.wordpress.com/2014/05/01/paypal-covert-redirect/
http://ittechnology.lofter.com/post/1cfbf60d_72e61e0
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/05/paypal-bug.html
http://blog.163.com/tetraph/blog/static/23460305120144612635422
https://webtechwire.wordpress.com/2014/05/02/paypal-covert-redirect/

 

 

Facebook OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Ask.com (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

facebook-jpg

 

 

Facebook OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Ask.com (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)



(1) Domain:
facebook.com

 

“Facebook had over 1.44 billion monthly active users as of March 2015. Because of the large volume of data users submit to the service, Facebook has come under scrutiny for their privacy policies. Facebook, Inc. held its initial public offering in February 2012 and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching an original peak market capitalization of $104 billion. As of February 2015 Facebook reached a market capitalization of $212 Billion.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Facebook web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.



The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 


(2.1) Vulnerability Description:

Facebook’s SSO system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in SSO system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Facebook.At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters,

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope”=email,user_birthday,user_likes.­..

 

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “/dialog/oauth?” with parameter “&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://www.facebook.com/dialog/oauth?client_id=152973104736490&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fwzus.ask.com%2Fr%3Ft%3Dp%26u%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fpoems%2Fdistance.html%3F&response_type=code&scope=email%2cuser_location%2cuser_birthday&display=popup [1]

 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

 

When a logged-in Facebook user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto Facebook and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

 

A logged-in Facebook user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Facebook would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from Facebook to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Facebook directly. The number of Facebook’s SSO client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, Facebook’s SSO system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Facebook’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

It might be of Facebook’s interest to patch up against such attacks.

 

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “http://www.diebiyi.com/articles“. We can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
ask.com

 

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://wzap.ask.com/r?t=v&d=im&u=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com

 

Vulnerable URL from Facebook that is related to ask.com:
https://www.facebook.com/dialog/oauth?client_id=152973104736490&redirect_uri=https%3a%2f%2fsocial.ask.com%2fGS%2fGSLogin.aspx%3fst%3dzNQz0TjIZd42P_zI5MUVw5WtCHw7EDMc1YEjBVuz3bU.&response_type=code&scope=email%2cuser_location%2cuser_birthday&display=popup

 

POC:
https://www.facebook.com/dialog/oauth?client_id=152973104736490&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fwzus.ask.com%2Fr%3Ft%3Dp%26u%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fpoems%2Fdistance.html%3F&response_type=code&scope=email%2cuser_location%2cuser_birthday&display=popup

 

 

 

 

(2.3) The following URLs have the same vulnerabilities.
https://m.facebook.com/dialog/oauth?redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fm.espn.go.com%2Fwireless%2Fconnect&scope=email%2Cuser_birthday%2Cuser_likes&client_id=116656161708917

https://graph.facebook.com/oauth/authorize?client_id=116656161708917&redirect_uri=http://m.espn.go.com/wireless/connect&display=touch&scope=email,user_birthday,user_likes

http://www.facebook.com/dialog/feed?app_id=180444840287&link=http://www.theguardian.com/money/2007/apr/21/creditcards.debt&display=popup&redirect_uri=http://gu-social-share-experiments.theguardian.com&show_error=false&ref=desktop

https://api.instagram.com/oauth/authorize/?client_id=28ad60e4d0b14b5c8bd87099e53feaef&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Ffollowgram.me%2Flogin&response_type=code&scope=likes+comments+relationships&display=touch

 

 


POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y2-2Scp0pbs



 

Blog Detail:
http://www.tetraph.com/blog/covert-redirect/facebook-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on-ask-com-information-leakage-and-url-redirect/




 

(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.



Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore.
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/










Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/facebook-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on-ask-com-information-leakage-and-url-redirect/
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/559169008889389056
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/hack-facebook-account-based-on-oauth-20.html
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120144210374933/
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/09/facebook-bug.html
http://webcabinet.tumblr.com/post/120699361942/whitehatview-internet-users-threatened-by-new
http://webtech.lofter.com/post/1cd3e0d3_72e61df
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/facebook-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on-ask-com-information-leakage-and-url-redirect/