Google Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Googleads.g.doubleclick.net

go

 

Bypass Google Open Redirect Filter Based on Googleads.g.doubleclick.net

— Google Covert Redirect Vulnerability Based on Googleads.g.doubleclick.net

 

 

 

(1) WebSite:
google.com

 

“Google is an American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing, and software. Most of its profits are derived from AdWords, an online advertising service that places advertising near the list of search results.

 

The corporation has been estimated to run more than one million servers in data centers around the world (as of 2007). It processes over one billion search requests and about 24 petabytes of user-generated data each day (as of 2009). In December 2013, Alexa listed google.com as the most visited website in the world. Numerous Google sites in other languages figure in the top one hundred, as do several other Google-owned sites such as YouTube and Blogger. Its market dominance has led to prominent media coverage, including criticism of the company over issues such as search neutrality, copyright, censorship, and privacy.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Google web application has a computer cyber security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect attacks.

The vulnerability exists at “Logout?” page with “&continue” parameter, i.e.


The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

(2.1) When a user is redirected from Google to another site, Google will check whether the redirected URL belongs to domains in Google’s whitelist (The whitelist usually contains websites belong to Google), e.g.
docs.google.com
googleads.g.doubleclick.net

 

If this is true, the redirection will be allowed.

 

However, if the URLs in a redirected domain have open URL redirection vulnerabilities themselves, a user could be redirected from Google to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site. This is as if being redirected from Google directly.

 

One of the vulnerable domain is,
googleads.g.doubleclick.net (Google’s Ad System)

 

 

 

(2.2) Use one webpage for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope“. We can suppose that this webpage is malicious.

Blog Detail:
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/11/covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on.html

 

 

 

 

 

(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect was found and dubbed by a Mathematics PhD student Wang Jing from School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

 

After Covert Redirect was published, it is kept in some common databases such as SCIP, OSVDB, Bugtraq, and X-Force. Its scipID is 13185, while OSVDB reference number is 106567. Bugtraq ID: 67196. X-Force reference number is 93031.

 

 

Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

 

 

 

More Details:
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/11/google-covert-redirect-vulnerability.html
http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2014/Nov/29
http://cxsecurity.com/issue/WLB-2014110106
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120141145350181/
https://infoswift.wordpress.com/2014/05/25/google-web-security/
http://tetraph.tumblr.com/post/119490394042/securitypost#notes
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/11/covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on.html
http://webtech.lofter.com/post/1cd3e0d3_706af10
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/559165319575371776
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/google-based-on-googleads-g-doubleclick-net/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-security/google-covert-g-doubleclick-net/
https://hackertopic.wordpress.com/2014/05/25/google-web-security/

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CVE-2015-2563 – Vastal I-tech phpVID 1.2.3 SQL Injection Web Security Vulnerabilities

smartphone-safety-security-secure-smartphone

CVE-2015-2563 – Vastal I-tech phpVID 1.2.3 SQL Injection Web Security Vulnerabilities

 

Exploit Title: CVE-2015-2563 Vastal I-tech phpVID /groups.php Multiple Parameters SQL Injection Web Security Vulnerabilities

Product: phpVID

Vendor: Vastal I-tech

Vulnerable Versions: 1.2.3 0.9.9

Tested Version: 1.2.3 0.9.9

Advisory Publication: March 13, 2015

Latest Update: April 25, 2015

Vulnerability Type: Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command (‘SQL Injection’) [CWE-89]

CVE Reference: CVE-2015-2563

CVSS Severity (version 2.0):

CVSS v2 Base Score: 7.5 (HIGH) (AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:P/I:P/A:P) (legend)

Impact Subscore: 6.4

Exploitability Subscore: 10.0

CVSS Version 2 Metrics:

Access Vector: Network exploitable

Access Complexity: Low

Authentication: Not required to exploit

Impact Type: Allows unauthorized disclosure of information; Allows unauthorized modification; Allows disruption of service

Credit: Wang Jing [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore] (@justqdjing)

 

 

Direction Details:



(1) Vendor & Product Description:



Vendor:

Vastal I-tech

 

Product & Vulnerable Versions:

phpVID

1.2.3

0.9.9

 

 

Vendor URL & Download:

phpVID can be approached from here,

http://www.vastal.com/phpvid-the-video-sharing-software.html#.VP7aQ4V5MxA


Product Introduction Overview:

“phpVID is a video sharing software or a video shating script and has all the features that are needed to run a successful video sharing website like youtube.com. The features include the following. phpVID is the best youtube clone available. The latest features include the parsing of the subtitles file and sharing videos via facebook. With phpVID Video Sharing is extremely easy.”


“The quality of code and the latest web 2.0 technologies have helped our customers to achieve their goals with ease. Almost all customers who have purchased phpVID are running a successful video sharing website. The quality of code has helped in generating more then 3 million video views a month using a “single dedicated server”. phpVID is the only software in market which was built in house and not just purchased from someone. We wrote the code we know the code and we support the code faster then anyone else. Have any questions/concerns please contact us at: info@vastal.com. See demo at: http://www.phpvid.com. If you would like to see admin panel demo please email us at: info@vastal.com.”


“Server Requirements:

Preferred Server: Linux any Version

PHP 4.1.0 or above

MySQL 3.1.10 or above

GD Library 2.0.1 or above

Mod Rewrite and .htaccess enabled on server.

FFMPEG (If you wish to convert the videos to Adobe Flash)”

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Details:

phpVID web application has a computer security bug problem. It can be exploited by SQL Injection attacks. This may allow an attacker to inject or manipulate SQL queries in the back-end database, allowing for the manipulation or disclosure of arbitrary data. Other bug hunter researchers have found some SQL Injection vulnerabilities related to it before, too. phpVID has patched some of them.


Several other similar products 0-day vulnerabilities have been found by some other bug hunter researchers before. phpVID has patched some of them. “Openwall software releases and other related files are also available from the Openwall file archive and its mirrors. You are encouraged to use the mirrors, but be sure to verify the signatures on software you download. The more experienced users and software developers may use our CVSweb server to browse through the source code for most pieces of Openwall software along with revision history information for each source file. We publish articles, make presentations, and offer professional services.” Openwall has published suggestions, advisories, solutions details related to important vulnerabilities.



(2.1) The first code programming flaw occurs at “&order_by” “&cat” parameters in “groups.php?” page.

 

 

 


Related Links:

http://packetstormsecurity.com/files/130754/Vastal-I-tech-phpVID-1.2.3-SQL-Injection.html

https://progressive-comp.com/?l=full-disclosure&m=142601071700617&w=2

http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2015/Mar/58

http://permalink.gmane.org/gmane.comp.security.fulldisclosure/1699

http://lists.openwall.net/full-disclosure/2015/03/10/8

http://static-173-79-223-25.washdc.fios.verizon.net/?l=full-disclosure&m=142601071700617&w=2

http://www.tetraph.com/blog/xss-vulnerability/cve-2015-2563/

http://static-173-79-223-25.washdc.fios.verizon.net/?l=full-disclosure&m=142551597501701&w=2

https://cxsecurity.com/issue/WLB-2015020091

https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=935563809832135&id=874373602617823

http://t.qq.com/p/t/482410003538035

http://biboying.lofter.com/post/1cc9f4f5_6ee2aa5

http://mathpost.tumblr.com/post/118768553885/xingti-cve-2015-2563-vastal-i-tech-phpvid

http://essayjeans.lofter.com/post/1cc7459a_6ee4fcb

http://xingti.tumblr.com/post/118768481545/cve-2015-2563-vastal-i-tech-phpvid-1-2-3-sql

https://plus.google.com/113698571167401884560/posts/gftS84rfD3A

https://itswift.wordpress.com/2015/05/12/cve-2015-2563-vastal-i-tech-phpvid/

https://www.facebook.com/essayjeans/posts/827458144012006

https://tetraph.wordpress.com/2015/05/12/cve-2015-2563-vastal-i-tech-phpvid/

http://mathstopic.blogspot.com/2015/05/cve-2015-2563-vastal-i-tech-phpvid-123.html

http://yurusi.blogspot.sg/2015/05/cve-2015-2563-vastal-i-tech-phpvid-123.html

https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/598057025247907840

http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120154125453111/


Tencent QQ OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

qq-messenger-53

 

Tencent QQ OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

 

 

 

(1) Domain:
qq.com

 

 

“Tencent QQ, popularly known as QQ, is an instant messaging software service developed by Chinese company Tencent Holdings Limited. QQ also offers a variety of services, including online social games, music, shopping, microblogging, movies, platform of games and group and voice chat. As of January 2015, there are 829 million active QQ accounts, with a peak of 176.4 million simultaneous online QQ users.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Tencent QQ web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.

 

 

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

QQ’s SSO system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in SSO system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to QQ.

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope”=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “/oauth/show?” with parameter “&redirect_uri”, e.g.
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=ConfirmPage&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [1]

 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

 

When a logged-in QQ user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto QQ and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

 

A logged-in QQ user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

 

(2.1.1) QQ would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from QQ to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from QQ directly. The number of QQ’s SSO client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, QQ’s SSO system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass QQ’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “https://dailymem.wordpress.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
cjcp.com.cn

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=qq&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A2%258E%25E5%25A4%258F.html

 

Vulnerable URL from QQ that is related to cjcp.com.cn:
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share

 

POC:
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2F%3Fm%3Duser%26a%3DotherLogin%26type%3Dqq%26furl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fseasons%252F%2525E7%2525A2%25258E%2525E5%2525A4%25258F.html&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [2]

 

 

 

 

(2.2) Another method for attackers.

Attackers enter the following URL in browser,
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=qq&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A2%258E%25E5%25A4%258F.html

 

Then, attackers can get URL below,
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [3]

 

If users click URL [3], the same thing will happen as URL [2].

 

 

 

(2.3) The following URLs have the same vulnerabilities.
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/qzoneoauth_authorize?oauth_consumer_key=209717&oauth_token=14921471022138330625&oauth_callback=http://user.nipic.com/api/login/qq/callback.asp

https://graph.qq.com/oauth2.0/authorize?client_id=100246654&redirect_uri=http://youxi.baidu.com/tp/QQAuth.jsp&response_type=code

https://open.t.qq.com/cgi-bin/oauth2/authorize?client_id=801132217&response_type=code&redirect_uri=http://passport.tianya.cn/login/txwb.do

 

 

POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lxaX9xvUfE

 

 

Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/tencent-qq-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html

 

 



 

(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.



 

Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

 

 

 

 

Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/tencent-qq-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
https://twitter.com/yangziyou/status/615125849306632193
https://biyiniao.wordpress.com/2014/08/28/qq-bugs/
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/tencent-qq-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
http://frenchairing.blogspot.com/2014/08/tencent-qq-exploit.html
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120144631154854/
http://guyuzui.lofter.com/post/1ccdcda4_6f0b982
http://mathpost.tumblr.com/post/119490927560/itinfotech-id-oauth
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/tencent-qq-oauth-2-0
https://computertechhut.wordpress.com/2014/08/28/tencent-qq-bug/
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/05/tencent-qq-bug.html

 

 

 

 

===========

 

 

 


腾讯 QQ 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向)





(1) 域名:
qq.com

 

 

” 腾讯QQ(简称“QQ”)是腾讯公司开发的一款基于Internet的即时通信(IM)软件。腾讯QQ支持在线聊天、视频通话、点对点断点续传文件、共享 文件、网络硬盘、自定义面板、QQ邮箱等多种功能,并可与多种通讯终端相连。2015年,QQ继续为用户创造良好的通讯体验!其标志是一只戴着红色围巾的 小企鹅。目前QQ已经覆盖Microsoft Windows、OS X、Android、iOS、Windows Phone等多种主流平台” (百度百科)

 

 

 

 

 

(2) 漏洞描述:

腾讯 QQ 网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。

 

 

这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。

 

 

 

 

(2.1) 漏洞细节:

QQ 的 SSO 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, QQ 对 SSO 系统的 parameter “&redirect_uri“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 QQ 的 URL跳转 攻击。

 

 

 

与此同时,这个漏洞可以用下面的参数来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope”=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…

 

 

它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

漏洞地点 “/oauth/show?”,参数”&redirect_uri”, e.g.
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=ConfirmPage&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [1]

 

 

 

同意三方 App 前:

当一个已经登录的 QQ 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 “&redirect_uri” 的 URL。

 

 

如果没有登录的 QQ 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。

 

 

 

同意三方 App 后:

已经登录的 QQ 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。

 

 

如果 QQ 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的QQ的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)。

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2.1.1) QQ 一般会允许属于已被验证过得三方 App domain 的所有 URLs。 然而,这些 URLs 可以被操控。比如,参数 “&redirect_uri” 是被三方 App 设置的,但攻击者可以修改此参数的值。

 

 

因此,QQ 用户意识不到他会被先从 QQ 跳转到第三方 App 的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 QQ 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。

 

 

因为 QQ 的 SSO 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。

 

 

在同意三方 App 之前,QQ 的 SSO 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 QQ 的 URL跳转 验证系统。

 

 

用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 “http://whitehatpostlike.lofter.com/“. 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code。

 

 

下面是一个有漏洞的三方 domain:
cjcp.com.cn

 

 

这个 domain 有漏洞的 URL:
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=qq&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A2%258E%25E5%25A4%258F.html

 

 

QQ 与 cjcp.com.cn 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share

 

 

POC:
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2F%3Fm%3Duser%26a%3DotherLogin%26type%3Dqq%26furl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fseasons%252F%2525E7%2525A2%25258E%2525E5%2525A4%25258F.html&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [2]

 

 

 

 

(2.2) 攻击的另一个方法.


攻击者在浏览器输入 URL,
http://uc.cjcp.com.cn/?m=user&a=otherLogin&type=qq&furl=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A2%258E%25E5%25A4%258F.html

 


然后,攻击者可以得到 URL,
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/show?which=Login&display=pc&client_id=100261282&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fuc.cjcp.com.cn%2Findex.php%3Fm%3DUser%26a%3Dcallback%26type%3Dqq&response_type=code&scope=get_user_info%2Cadd_share [3]

 

如果用户点击 URL [3], 发生的事情和 URL [2] 一样.

 

 

 

 

(2.3)下面的 URLs 有同样的漏洞.
http://openapi.qzone.qq.com/oauth/qzoneoauth_authorize?oauth_consumer_key=209717&oauth_token=14921471022138330625&oauth_callback=http://user.nipic.com/api/login/qq/callback.asp

 

https://graph.qq.com/oauth2.0/authorize?client_id=100246654&redirect_uri=http://youxi.baidu.com/tp/QQAuth.jsp&response_type=code

 

 

https://open.t.qq.com/cgi-bin/oauth2/authorize?client_id=801132217&response_type=code&redirect_uri=http://passport.tianya.cn/login/txwb.do

 

 

 

POC 视频:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lxaX9xvUfE

 

 

博客细节:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/tencent-qq-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向?

隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS – Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

 

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向也可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF – Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。

 

 

 

 



Sohu OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

Screenshot from 2015-06-28 21:09:09

 

Sohu OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)




(1) Domain:

sohu.com

 

“Sohu, Inc. (Chinese: 搜狐; pinyin: Sōuhú; literally: “Search-fox”) is a Chinese Internet company headquartered in the Sohu Internet Plaza in Haidian District, Beijing. This company and its subsidiaries offer advertising, a search engine, on-line multiplayer gaming and other services. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007, Sohu Inc.’s revenues increased 41% to $188.9M. Net income increased 31% to $35M. Sohu was ranked as the world’s 3rd and 12th fastest growing company by Fortune in 2009 and 2010 respectively. As of August 2011, Sohu is the 44th overall in Alexa’s internet rankings.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Sohu web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.



The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

Sohu’s OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Sohu.

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope”=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

When a logged-in Sohu user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto Sohu and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

A logged-in Sohu user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Sohu would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from Sohu to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Sohu directly. The number of Sohu’s OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, Sohu’s OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Sohu’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “http://essayjeanslike.lofter.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

 

POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1XW31s92qA




Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/sohus-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html







(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.

 

 

 

Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore.
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/








Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/sohus-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
https://inzeed.wordpress.com/2014/07/28/sohu-exploit/
https://twitter.com/buttercarrot/status/558906629056249856
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/sohus-oauth-bug
http://russiapost.blogspot.com/2014/07/sohu-hacking.html
http://shellmantis.tumblr.com/post/119492886806/securitypost
http://xingzhehong.lofter.com/post/1cfd0db2_706af13
https://itinfotechnology.wordpress.com/2014/07/07/sohu-attack/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/sohus-oauth-2-0
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120144714756937/
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/08/sohu-service-attack.html

 

 

 

===========

 

 

搜狐 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向)





(1) 域名:
sohu.com



” 搜狐(NASDAQ:SOHU),是一家互联网中文门户网站。1995年,搜狐创始人张朝阳从美国麻省理工学院毕业回到中国,利用风险投资创建了爱特信信 息技术有限公司,1998年正式推出搜狐网。2000年,搜狐在美国纳斯达克证券市场上市。搜狐开发的产品有搜狗拼音输入法、搜狗五笔输入法、搜狗音乐 盒、搜狗浏览器、搜狐彩电、独立的搜索引擎搜狗和网游门户畅游。搜狐是2008年北京奥林匹克运动会唯一的互联网赞助商,也是奥林匹克运动会历史上第一个 互联网内容的赞助商。” (百度百科)







(2) 漏洞描述:

搜狐 网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。

 

 

这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。




 


(2.1) 漏洞细节:

Sohu 的 OAuth 2.0 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, Sohu 对 OAuth 2.0 系统的 parameter “&redirect_uri“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 Sohu 的 URL跳转 攻击。

 

 

与此同时,这个漏洞可以用下面的参数来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token,code…

“&scope”=email,name…

 

 

它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

漏洞地点 “/oauth2/authorize?”,参数”&redirect_uri”, e.g.

https://api.t.sohu.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=TP4vefRdCFUEFhrNpMnQ&scope=basic&response_type=code&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fnews.cn%2Fsitecb%2Fsohu.do&state=http://my.xuan.news.cn/main.do__20 [1]

 

 

 

同意三方 App 前:

当一个已经登录的 Sohu 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 “&redirect_uri” 的 URL。

 

 

如果没有登录的 Sohu 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。

 

 

 

同意三方 App 后:

已经登录的 Sohu 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。

 

 

如果 Sohu 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的Sohu的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)。

 

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Sohu 一般会允许属于已被验证过得三方 App domain 的所有 URLs。 然而,这些 URLs 可以被操控。比如,参数 “&redirect_uri” 是被三方 App 设置的,但攻击者可以修改此参数的值。

 

 

因此,Sohu 用户意识不到他会被先从 Sohu 跳转到第三方 App 的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 Sohu 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。

 

 

因为 Sohu 的 OAuth 2.0 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。

 

 

在同意三方 App 之前,Sohu 的 OAuth 2.0 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 Sohu 的 URL跳转 验证系统。

 

 

用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 “http://essayjeanslike.lofter.com/“. 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code。

 

 

Sohu 与 news.cn 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
https://api.t.sohu.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=TP4vefRdCFUEFhrNpMnQ&scope=basic&response_type=code&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Flogin.home.news.cn%2Fcb%2Fsohu.do&state=http://my.xuan.news.cn/main.do__20

 

 

POC (我们可以在news.cn domain 内随便修改”redirect_uri”的值):
https://api.t.sohu.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id=TP4vefRdCFUEFhrNpMnQ&scope=basic&response_type=code&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Flogin.home.news.cn%2Fcb%2Fsohu.do&state=http://my.xuan.news.cn/main.do__20

 

 

POC 视频:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1XW31s92qA




博客细节:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/sohus-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html

 





(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向?

隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS – Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

 

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向也可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF – Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。



Alibaba Taobao OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

1688-taobao

 

Alibaba Taobao OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)




(1) Domain:
taobao.com

 

 

“Taobao (simplified Chinese: 淘宝网; traditional Chinese: 淘寶網; pinyin: Táobǎo Wǎng; literally: “searching for treasure website”) is a Chinese website for online shopping similar to eBay and Amazon that is operated in China by Alibaba Group. Founded by Alibaba Group on May 10, 2003, Taobao Marketplace facilitates consumer-to-consumer (C2C) retail by providing a platform for small businesses and individual entrepreneurs to open online stores that mainly cater to consumers in Chinese-speaking regions (Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) and also abroad. With around 760 million product listings as of March 2013, Taobao Marketplace is one of the world’s top 10 most visited websites according to Alexa. For the year ended March 31, 2013, the combined gross merchandise volume (GMV) of Taobao Marketplace and Tmall.com exceeded 1 trillion yuan.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Taobao web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.



The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Taobao.

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope”=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “/authorize?” with parameter “&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html [1]

 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

When a logged-in Taobao user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto Taobao and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

A logged-in Taobao user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Taobao would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from Taobao to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Taobao directly. The number of Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Taobao’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “https://computerpitch.wordpress.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
sohu.com

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do?bru=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

Vulnerable URL from Taobao that is related to sohu.com:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://sohu.com

 

POC:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

 

 

 

(2.3) The following URLs have the same vulnerabilities.
https://login.taobao.com/member/login.jhtml?sign=8uBo%2FBShyXsFVd4q%2FREkfg%3D%3D&timestamp=2014-03-19+09%3A24%3A22&sub=true&style=mini_top&need_sign=top&full_redirect=true&from=mini_top&from_encoding=utf-8&TPL_redirect_url=https%3A%2F%2Foauth.taobao.com%2Fauthorize%3Fstate%3D1%26response_type%3Dcode%26client_id%3D21112101%26redirect_uri%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.paidai.com%252Fuser%252Foauth_taobao.php

 

 

POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZVCZK03-Rw



Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html







(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.



 

Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore.
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/









Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-bug
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-service-exploit.html
https://twitter.com/essayjeans/status/558976811573321728
https://webtechwire.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/taobao-vulnerability/
http://inzeed.tumblr.com/post/119493913816/securitypost-itinfotech-continuan-los
http://essayjeans.lofter.com/post/1cc7459a_7069892
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-service-exploit.html
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/2346030512014463745630/
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-oauth-2-0
https://hackertopic.wordpress.com/2014/06/01/alibaba-taobao-bug/

 

 

 

===========

 

 


阿里巴巴 淘宝 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向)




(1) 域名:

taobao.com



” 淘宝网是亚太地区较大的网络零售商圈,由阿里巴巴集团在2003年5月10日投资创立。淘宝网现在业务跨越C2C(个人对个人)、B2C(商家对个人)两 大部分。截止2014年,淘宝网注册会员超5亿人每天有超过1.2亿的活跃用户,在线商品数达到10亿件,淘宝网和天猫平台的交易额总额超过了1.5万 亿。” (百度百科)







(2) 漏洞描述:

阿里巴巴 淘宝 网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。




这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。




 


(2.1) 漏洞细节:

Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, Taobao 对 OAuth 2.0 系统的 parameter “&redirect_uri“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 Taobao 的 URL跳转 攻击。

 

 

与此同时,这个漏洞可以用下面的参数来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token,code…

“&scope”=get_user_info,email…

 

 

它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

漏洞地点 “/authorize?”,参数”&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html [1]

 

 

 

同意三方 App 前:

当一个已经登录的 Taobao 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 “&redirect_uri” 的 URL。

 

 

如果没有登录的Taobao 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。

 

 

 

同意三方 App 后:

已经登录的 Taobao 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。

 

 

如果 Taobao 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的Taobao的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)。

 

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Taobao 一般会允许属于已被验证过得三方 App domain 的所有 URLs。 然而,这些 URLs 可以被操控。比如,参数 “&redirect_uri” 是被三方 App 设置的,但攻击者可以修改此参数的值。

 

 

因此,Taobao 用户意识不到他会被先从 Taobao 跳转到第三方 App 的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 Taobao 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。

 

 

因为 Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。

 

 

在同意三方 App 之前,Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 Taobao 的 URL跳转 验证系统。

 

 

 

 

(2.2) 用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 “http://lifegreen.lofter.com/“. 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code。

 

 

下面是一个有漏洞的三方 domain:
sohu.com

 

 

这个 domain 有漏洞的 URL:
http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do?bru=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

 

Taobao 与 sohu.com 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://sohu.com

 

 

 

POC:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 



(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向?

隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS – Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向也可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF – Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。