Winmail Server 4.2 Reflected XSS (Cross-site Scripting) Web Application 0-Day Security Bug

Winmail Server 4.2 Reflected XSS (Cross-site Scripting) Web Application 0-Day Security Bug

 

 

Exploit Title: Winmail Server badlogin.php &lid parameter Reflected XSS Web Security Vulnerability

Product: Winmail Server

Vendor: Winmail Server

Vulnerable Versions: 4.2 4.1

Tested Version: 4.2 4.1

Advisory Publication: August 24, 2015

Latest Update: August 30, 2015

Vulnerability Type: Cross-Site Scripting [CWE-79]

CVE Reference:

Impact CVSS Severity (version 2.0):

CVSS v2 Base Score: 4.3 (MEDIUM) (AV:N/AC:M/Au:N/C:N/I:P/A:N) (legend)

Impact Subscore: 2.9

Exploitability Subscore: 8.6

CVSS Version 2 Metrics:

Access Vector: Network exploitable; Victim must voluntarily interact with attack mechanism

Access Complexity: Medium

Authentication: Not required to exploit

Impact Type: Allows unauthorized modification

Discover and Reporter: Wang Jing [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore] (@justqdjing)

 

 

winmail_page1

 

winmail_xss

 

 

Caution Details:

 



(1) Vendor & Product Description:

Vendor:

Winmail Server

 

Product & Vulnerable Versions:

Winmail Server

4.2 4.1

 

Vendor URL & Download:

Product can be obtained from here,
http://www.magicwinmail.net/download.asp

 


Product Introduction Overview:

“Winmail Server is an enterprise class mail server software system offering a robust feature set, including extensive security measures. Winmail Server supports SMTP, POP3, IMAP, Webmail, LDAP, multiple domains, SMTP authentication, spam protection, anti-virus protection, SSL security, Network Storage, remote access, Web-based administration, and a wide array of standard email options such as filtering, signatures, real-time monitoring, archiving, and public email folders. Winmail Server can be configured as a mail server or gateway for ISDN, ADSL, FTTB and cable modem networks, beyond standard LAN and Internet mail server configurations.”

 

 

 


(2) Vulnerability Details:

Winmail Server web application has a computer security problem. Hackers can exploit it by reflected XSS cyber attacks. This may allow a remote attacker to create a specially crafted request that would execute arbitrary script code in a user’s browser session within the trust relationship between their browser and the server.

Several other similar products 0-day vulnerabilities have been found by some other bug hunter researchers before. Winmail Server has patched some of them. “scip AG was founded in 2002. We are driven by innovation, sustainability, transparency, and enjoyment of our work. We are completely self-funded and are thus in the comfortable position to provide completely independent and neutral services. Our staff consists of highly specialized experts who focus on the topic information security and continuously further their expertise through advanced training”. Scip has recorded similar XSS bugs, such as scipID 26980.

 

(2.1) The code flaw occurs at “&lid” parameter in “badlogin.php” page. In fact, CVE-2005-3692 mentions that “&retid” parameter in “badlogin.php” page is vulnerable to XSS attacks. But it does not mention “&lid” parameter”. The scipID of the bug is 26980. Bugtraq (SecurityFocus) ID is 15493. OSVDB ID is 20926.

 

 

 

 

 

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FC2 Online Web Service Open Redirect (Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards) Cyber Security Vulnerabilities

fc2_com_2

 

FC2 Online Web Service Open Redirect (Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards) Cyber Security Vulnerabilities

 

Domain:
fc2.com

“FC2 (founded July 20, 1999) is a popular Japanese blogging host, the third most popular video hosting service in Japan (after YouTube and Niconico), and a web hosting company headquartered in Las Vegas, Nevada. It is the sixth most popular website in Japan overall (as of January 2014). FC2 is an abbreviation of “Fantastic Kupi-Kupi (クピクピ)”. It is known to allow controversial adult content such as pornography and hate speech (unlike many of its competitors). The company uses rented office space for its headquarters which it shares with many other U.S.-based businesses. It also pays taxes in the United States. The physical servers are located in the United States. However, it is believed that the majority of the company and its users (including employees) are located within Japan” (Wikipedia)

 

The Alexa rank of fc2.com is 52 on February 18 2015. It is the toppest Japanese local website sevice.

 

 

 

(1) Vulnerability Description:

FC2 online web service has a computer cyber security bug problem. It can be exploited by Open Redirect (Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards) attacks. Here is the description of Open Redirect: “An open redirect is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without any validation. This vulnerability is used in phishing attacks to get users to visit malicious sites without realizing it.” One consequences of it is Phishing. (OWASP)

 

The program code flaw can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (9 9.0.8112.16421) of Windows 7, Mozilla Firefox (37.0.2) & Google Chromium 42.0.2311 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04.2),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X v10.9 Mavericks.

 

In fact, during the test, it is not hard to find URL Redirection bugs in FC2. Maybe fc2.com pays little attention to mitigate these Vulnerabilities. These bugs were found by using URFDS.

 

 

 

(2) Use one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://securitypost.tumblr.com/“. Can suppose that this webpage is malicious.

 

 

Vulnerability Disclosure:
Those vulnerabilities were reported to Rakuten, they are still unpatched.

 

 

 

Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing

 

 

==================

 

 

 

FC2オンラインWebサービスオープンリダイレクト(未検証のリダイレクトとフォワード)サイバー·セキュリティの脆弱性

 

ドメイン:
fc2.com

(1999年7月20日に設立)」FC2は、日本の人気ブログのホスト、(YouTubeやニコニコ後)は、日本で3番目に人気のビデオホスティングサービス、およびラスベガス、ネバダ州に本社を置くウェブホスティング会社です。それは第六最も人気のあります日本のウェブサイトは、全体的な。(2014年1月のように)FC2はの略で、「ファンタスティックKupi-Kupi(クピクピ)」。このようなポルノのような論争のアダルトコンテンツを許可し、(競合他社の多くとは異なり)スピーチを憎むことが知られています。」 (ウィキペディア)

 

fc2.comのAlexaのランクはそれがtoppest日本のローカルウェブサイトの流通サービスである2月18日2015年52あります。

 

 

 

(1)脆弱性の説明:

FC2オンラインWebサービスは、コンピュータのサイバーセキュリティバグの問題があります。それは、オープンリダイレクト(未検証のリダイレクトとフォワード)攻撃によって悪用される可能性があります。ここでオープンリダイレクトの説明は次のとおりです。「オープンリダイレクトがパラメータを受け取り、何の検証も行わずにパラメータ値にユーザーをリダイレクトするアプリケーションです。この脆弱性は、それを実現することなく、悪質なサイトを訪問するユーザーを取得するためにフィッシング攻撃で使用されています。。 “それの一つの結果はフィッシングで​​す。 (OWASP)

 

プログラムコードの欠陥は、ユーザのログインなしで攻撃される可能性があります。テストは、Windows 7のMicrosoftのIE(9 9.0.8112.16421)で行われた、Mozilla Firefoxの(37.0.2)&グーグルクロム42.0.2311のUbuntuの(64ビット)(14.04.2)はMac OSのアップルのSafari 6.1.6 X v10.9マーベリックス。

 

実際には、テスト時には、FC2内のURLリダイレクトのバグを見つけることは難しいことではありません。多分fc2.comは、これらの脆弱性を軽減するためにはほとんど注意を払っています。

 

 

 

(2)以下の試験のためのWebページのいずれかを使用します。ウェブページアドレスは「http://securitypost.tumblr.com/」です。このウェブページに悪意であるとすることができます。

 

 

脆弱性の公開:
これらの脆弱性は楽天に報告された、彼らはまだパッチを適用していないです。

 

 

発見し、レポーター:
王ジン (Wang Jing)、数理科学研究部門(MAS)、物理的および数理科学科(SPMS)、南洋理工大学(NTU)、シンガポール。 (@justqdjing
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing

Attachments area
Preview YouTube video FC2 Online Web Service Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards Cyber Security Vulnerabilities

FC2 fc2.com Online Website URLs XSS (cross site scripting) Vulnerabilities (All URLs Under Domain blog.fc2.com/tag)

FC2 fc2.com Online Website URLs XSS (cross site scripting) Vulnerabilities (All URLs Under Domain blog.fc2.com/tag)

 

Domain:
blog.fc2.com/

“FC2 (founded July 20, 1999) is a popular Japanese blogging host, the third most popular video hosting service in Japan (after YouTube and Niconico), and a web hosting company headquartered in Las Vegas, Nevada. It is the sixth most popular website in Japan overall (as of January 2014). FC2 is an abbreviation of “Fantastic Kupi-Kupi (クピクピ)”. It is known to allow controversial adult content such as pornography and hate speech (unlike many of its competitors). The company uses rented office space for its headquarters which it shares with many other U.S.-based businesses. It also pays taxes in the United States. The physical servers are located in the United States. However, it is believed that the majority of the company and its users (including employees) are located within Japan” (Wikipedia)

 

The Alexa rank of fc2.com is 52 on February 18 2015. It is the toppest Japanese local website sevice.

 

 

fc2_blog_xss1




fc2_blog_xss2

 

 

(1) Vulnerability description:

FC2 has a computer cyber security bug problem. It is vulnerable to XSS attacks. Here is the description of XSS: “Hackers are constantly experimenting with a wide repertoire of hacking techniques to compromise websites and web applications and make off with a treasure trove of sensitive data including credit card numbers, social security numbers and even medical records. Cross-site Scripting (also known as XSS or CSS) is generally believed to be one of the most common application layer hacking techniques Cross-site Scripting allows an attacker to embed malicious JavaScript, VBScript, ActiveX, HTML, or Flash into a vulnerable dynamic page to fool the user, executing the script on his machine in order to gather data. The use of XSS might compromise private information, manipulate or steal cookies, create requests that can be mistaken for those of a valid user, or execute malicious code on the end-user systems. The data is usually formatted as a hyperlink containing malicious content and which is distributed over any possible means on the internet.” (Acunetix)

 

The programming code flaw occurs at fc2 URLs’ filenames . Fc2 only filter part of the filenames in the urls. Almost all urls are affected under domain blog.fc2.com/tag are affected. i.e.
http://blog.fc2.com/tag/drug/
http://blog.fc2.com/tag//アメリカ/
http://blog.fc2.com/tag/tag/翻訳
http://blog.fc2.com/tag//>レシピブログに参加中♪

 

The vulnerability can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Firefox (37.02) in Ubuntu (14.04) and IE (9.0.15) in Windows 7. The bugs found by using CSXDS.

 

POC Code:
http://blog.fc2.com/tag/drug//“><img src=x onerror=prompt(‘justqdjing’)>
http://blog.fc2.com/tag//アメリカ//“><img src=x onerror=prompt(‘justqdjing’)>
http://blog.fc2.com/tag/tag/翻訳//“><img src=x onerror=prompt(‘justqdjing’)>
http://blog.fc2.com/tag//>レシピブログに参加中//”><img src=x onerror=prompt(‘justqdjing’)>

 

 

 

Vulnerability Disclosure:
Those vulnerabilities were reported to rakuten-cert@rakuten.co.jp in 2014. No one replied. Until now, they are still unpatched.

 

 

Bug Discover:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing

 

 

=================================

 

 

FC2 fc2.comオンラインのウェブサイトのURL XSS(クロスサイトスクリプティング)脆弱性(ドメインblog.fc2.com/tag下にあるすべてのURL)

 

ドメイン:
blog.fc2.com/

“FC2(エフシーツー)は、アメリカ合衆国ネバダ州ラスベガスに本社を置く、Webサービスおよびホスティングサービスを展開する企業。日本を中心に事業展開を行なっている。社名のFC2は「ファンタスティック・クピ・クピ」の略であるとしている。 会社の代表者は、設立当初から2008年までは日本人の高橋理洋(CEO)が務めたが、2009年からMaurice Bannon、2012年にはLance Wolff Kerness、2014年はDEREK G ROWLEYが務めている。” (ja.wikipedia.org)

 

 

(1)脆弱性の説明:

FC2は、コンピュータのサイバーセキュリティバグの問題があります。これは、XSS攻撃に対して脆弱です。ここでXSSの説明は次のとおりです。「ハッカーは常にWebサイトやWebアプリケーションを侵害し、クレジットカード番号、社会保障番号、さらには医療記録などの機密データの宝庫でオフにする技術をハッキングの幅広いレパートリーで実験されている4クロス。サイトスクリプティングは、(また、XSSやCSSとして知られる)は、一般のVBScript、ActiveXの、HTML、またはFlashはに対して脆弱動的ページに、攻撃者が悪意のあるJavaScriptを埋め込むことができ、最も一般的なアプリケーション層ハッキング技術クロスサイトスクリプティングの一つであると考えられていますデータを収集するために、自分のマシン上でスクリプトを実行して、ユーザーをだます。XSSの使用が有効なユーザーの方に誤解されるか、または最後に悪質なコードを実行できる要求を作成し、操作したり、クッキーを盗む、個人情報を危険にさらす可能性があります-userシステムでは、データは通常、悪質なコンテンツを含むハイパーリンクとしてフォーマットされ、インターネット上の任意の可能な手段を介して配布されています。」 (会社のAcunetix)

 

プログラミングコードの欠陥は、FC2のURL」のファイル名で発生します。 FC2は、URLだけでファイル名の一部をフィルタリングします。ほぼすべてのURLが影響を受けますblog.fc2.com/tagドメインの下に影響を受けています。すなわちhttp://blog.fc2.com/tag/drug/
http://blog.fc2.com/tag//アメリカ/
http://blog.fc2.com/tag/tag/翻訳
http://blog.fc2.com/tag//>レシピブログに参加中♪

 

この脆弱性は、ユーザのログインなしで攻撃される可能性があります。試験は、Windows 7でのUbuntuでのFirefox(37.02)(14.04)およびIE(9.0.15)で行いました。

 

 

POCコード:
http://blog.fc2.com/tag/drug//“><img SRC = X onerror = alert( ‘justqdjing’)>
http://blog.fc2.com/tag//アメリカ// “> <IMG src = X onerror = alert( ‘justqdjing’)>
http://blog.fc2.com/tag/tag/翻訳// “> <IMG src = X onerror = alert( ‘justqdjing’)>
http://blog.fc2.com/tag//>レシピブログに参加中// “> <IMG src = X onerror =alert( ‘justqdjing’)>

 

 

 

脆弱性の公開:
これらの脆弱性は誰も答えていない2014年にrakuten-cert@rakuten.co.jpすることが報告されました。今までは、彼らはまだパッチを適用していないです。

 

 

バグを発見:
王ジン (Wang Jing)、数理科学研究部門(MAS)、物理的および数理科学科(SPMS)、南洋理工大学(NTU)、シンガポール。 (@justqdjing
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing

Attachments area
Preview YouTube video FC2 fc2.com Online Website URLs XSS (cross site scripting) Vulnerabilities (Domain blog)

FC2 fc2.com Online Website URLs XSS (cross site scripting) Vulnerabilities (Domain blog)

Rakuten Online Website Open Redirect (URL Redirection) Cyber Security Vulnerabilities

rakuten_jp_1

 

Rakuten Online Website Open Redirect (URL Redirection) Cyber Security Vulnerabilities

 

Domain:
rakuten.com




“Rakuten, Inc. (楽天株式会社 Rakuten Kabushiki-gaisha?) is a Japanese electronic commerce and Internet company based in Tokyo, Japan. Its B2B2C e-commerce platform Rakuten Ichiba is the largest e-commerce site in Japan and among the world’s largest by sales. Hiroshi Mikitani founded the company in February 1997 as MDM, Inc., and is still its chief executive. Rakuten Shopping Mall (楽天市場 Rakuten Ichiba?) started operations in May 1997. In June 1999, the company changed its name to Rakuten, Inc. The Japanese word rakuten means optimism. In 2012, the company’s revenues totaled US$4.6 billion with operating profits of about US$244 million. In June 2013, Rakuten, Inc. reported it had a total of 10,351 employees worldwide. In 2005, Rakuten started expanding outside Japan, mainly through acquisitions and joint ventures. Its acquisitions include Buy.com (now Rakuten.com Shopping in the US), Priceminister (France), Ikeda (now Rakuten Brasil), Tradoria (now Rakuten Deutschland), Play.com (UK), Wuaki.tv (Spain), and Kobo Inc. (Canada). The company has investments in Pinterest, Ozon.ru, AHA Life, and Daily Grommet.” (Wikipedia)

 

The Alexa rank of rakuten.co.jp is 64 on May 29 2015. It is the second toppest Japanese local sevice website.




(1) Vulnerability Description:

Rakuten online website has a computer cyber security bug problem. It can be exploited by Open Redirect (Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards) attacks. Here is the description of Open Redirect: “A web application accepts a user-controlled input that specifies a link to an external site, and uses that link in a Redirect. This simplifies phishing attacks. An http parameter may contain a URL value and could cause the web application to redirect the request to the specified URL. By modifying the URL value to a malicious site, an attacker may successfully launch a phishing scam and steal user credentials. Because the server name in the modified link is identical to the original site, phishing attempts have a more trustworthy appearance.” (From CWE)

 

The program code flaw can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (9 9.0.8112.16421) of Windows 7, Mozilla Firefox (37.0.2) & Google Chromium 42.0.2311 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04.2),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X v10.9 Mavericks.

 

Since know only a little Japanese, not sure whether Rakuten pays much attention to Open Redirect Vulnerabilities or not. These bugs were found by using URFDS.

 

 

 

(2) Use one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://itinfotech.tumblr.com/“. Can suppose that this webpage is malicious.

 

Vulnerable URL 1:

POC Code:

 

Vulnerable URL 2:

POC Code:

 

Vulnerable URL 3:

POC Code:

 

 

Vulnerability Disclosure:

Those vulnerabilities are not patched now.

 

 

 

Bug Discover:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing

 

 

============

 

 

 

楽天オンラインサイトオープンリダイレクト(URLリダイレクション)サイバー·セキュリティの脆弱性

 

ドメイン:
rakuten.com




「楽天株式会社は、(楽天株式会社楽天株式会社-gaisha?)東京、日本に拠点を置く日本の電子商取引やインターネット企業です。そのB2B2Cの電子商取引プラットフォーム楽天市場は、日本最大の電子商取引サイトで、世界の中で販売による最大。三木谷浩史は、MDM、株式会社として1997年2月で会社を設立し、さらにその最高経営責任者(CEO)である。楽天ショッピングモール(楽天市場楽天市場?)1999年6月1997年5月で事業を開始し、同社は社名変更楽天株式会社に日本語ワード楽天楽観を意味している。2012年には、同社の売上高は、米国約US2.44億ドルの営業利益との46億ドルとなりました。2013年6月には、楽天株式会社は、それが世界中の10351名の従業員を有していたと報告した。で2005年、楽天は、主に買収や合弁事業を通じて、日本国外で拡大し始めた。その買収は、Buy.com(米国で今Rakuten.comショッピング)、Priceminister(フランス)、池田(現楽天ブラジル)、Tradoria(今楽天ドイツ)が挙げられます、Play.com(英国)、Wuaki.tv(スペイン)、およびコボ(カナダ)。同社はPinterest、Ozon.ru、AHA生活、毎日のグロメットで投資を行っている。」(ウィキペディア)

 

rakuten.co.jpのAlexaのランクは、第2 toppest日本の地方流通サービスのウェブサイトである5月29日2015年64あります。





(1)脆弱性の説明:

楽天のオンラインウェブサイトは、コンピュータのサイバーセキュリティバグの問題があります。それは、オープンリダイレクト(未検証のリダイレクトとフォワード)攻撃によって悪用される可能性があります。ここでオープンリダイレクトの説明は次のとおりです。「Webアプリケーションは外部サイトへのリンクを指定するユーザ制御入力を受け付け、リダイレクトでそのリンクを使用しています。これは、フィッシング攻撃を簡素化HTTPパラメータがURL値が含まれており、可能性があります。。指定されたURLに要求をリダイレクトするようにWebアプリケーションを引き起こす。悪質なサイトへのURLの値を変更することにより、攻撃者がフィッシング詐欺を起動し、ユーザーの資格情報を盗むことができる。変更されたリンク内のサーバー名が、元のサイトと同じであるため、フィッシングの試みは、より信頼性の高い外観を持っています。」 (CWEから)

 

プログラムコードの欠陥は、ユーザのログインなしで攻撃される可能性があります。テストは、Windows 7のMicrosoftのIE(9 9.0.8112.16421)で行われた、Mozilla Firefoxの(37.0.2)&グーグルクロム42.0.2311のUbuntuの(64ビット)(14.04.2)はMac OSのアップルのSafari 6.1.6 X v10.9マーベリックス。

 

楽天リダイレクトの脆弱性かどうかを開くために多くの注意を払っているかどうかわからない、少しだけ日本語を知っているので。

 




 

 

 

(2)以下の試験のためのWebページのいずれかを使用します。ウェブページアドレスは「http://itinfotech.tumblr.com/」です。このウェブページに悪意であるとすることができます。

 

脆弱URL 1:

POCコード:

 

脆弱URL 2:

POCコード:

 

脆弱URL 3:

POCコード:

 

 

脆弱性の公開:

これらの脆弱性は、現在パッチが適用されていません。

 

 

 

バグを発見:
王ジン (Wang Jing)、数理科学研究部門(MAS)、物理的および数理科学科(SPMS)、南洋理工大学(NTU)、シンガポール。 (@justqdjing
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing



Amazon Covert Redirect Bug Based on Kindle Daily Post, Omnivoracious, Car Lust

Anonymous-hackers

 

Amazon Covert Redirect Bug Based on Kindle Daily Post, Omnivoracious, Car Lust

— Amazon Covert Redirect Based on Kindle Daily Post, Omnivoracious, Car Lust & kindlepost.com omnivoracious.com carlustblog.com Open Redirect Web Security Vulnerabilities

“Amazon.com, Inc. (/ˈæməzɒn/ or /ˈæməzən/) is an American electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington. It is the largest Internet-based retailer in the United States. Amazon.com started as an online bookstore, but soon diversified, selling DVDs, Blu-rays, CDs, video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, software, video games, electronics, apparel, furniture, food, toys and jewelry. The company also produces consumer electronics—notably, Amazon Kindle e-book readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV and Fire Phone — and is a major provider of cloud computing services. Amazon also sells certain low-end products like USB cables under its inhouse brand AmazonBasics. Amazon has separate retail websites for United States, United Kingdom & Ireland, France, Canada, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Australia, Brazil, Japan, China, India and Mexico. Amazon also offers international shipping to certain other countries for some of its products. In 2011, it had professed an intention to launch its websites in Poland and Sweden.” (Wikipedia)

 

All kindlepost.com, omnivoracious.com, carlustblog.com are websites belonging to Amazon.

“The Kindle Post keeps Kindle customers up-to-date on the latest Kindle news and information and passes along fun reading recommendations, author interviews, and more.”

“Omnivoracious is a blog run by the books editors at Amazon.com. We aim to share our passion for the written word through news, reviews, interviews, and more. This is our space to talk books and publishing frankly and we welcome participation through comments. Please visit often or add us to your favorite RSS reader to keep up on the latest information.”

“Car Lust is, very simply, where interesting cars meet irrational emotion. It’s a deeply personal exploration of the hidden gems of the automotive world; a twisted look into a car nut’s mind; and a quirky look at the broader automotive universe – a broader universe that lies beneath the new, the flashy, and the trendy represented in the car magazines.”

 

 

Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)

Vulnerabilities Description:

Amazon has a computer bug security problem. Both Amazon itself and its websites are vulnerable to different kind of attacks. This allows hackers to do phishing attacks to Amazon users.

 

When a user is redirected from amazon to another site, amazon will check a variable named “token”. Every redirected website will be given one token. This idea is OK. However, all URLs related to the redirected website use the same token. This means if the authenticated site itself has Open Redirect vulnerabilities. Then victims can be redirected to any site from Amazon.

 

The program code flaw can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (9 9.0.8112.16421) of Windows 7, Mozilla Firefox (37.0.2) & Google Chromium 42.0.2311 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04.2),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X v10.9 Mavericks.

Use a website for the following tests. The website is “http://www.diebiyi.com/articles“. Suppose this website is malicious,

 

 


(1) Kindle Daily Post Open Redirect & Amazon Covert Redirect Based on kindlepost.com

(1.1) Kindle Daily Post Open Redirect Security Vulnerability

Vulnerable Links:

Poc:

 

 

(1.2) Amazon Covert Redirect Based on kindlepost.com

Vulnerable URL of Amazon:

POC:

 

 

kindlepost_com

 

 

 

(2) Omnivoracious Open Redirect & Amazon Covert Redirect Based on omnivoracious.com

(2.1) Omnivoracious Open Redirect Security Vulnerability

Vulnerable Links:

POC:

 

 

(2.2) Amazon Covert Redirect Based on omnivoracious.com

Vulnerable URL:

POC:

 

 

omnivoracious_com

 

 

 

(3) Car Lust Open Redirect & Amazon Covert Redirect Based on carlustblog.com

(3.1) Car Lust Open Redirect Security Vulnerability

Vulnerable Links:

POC:

 

 

(3.2) Amazon Covert Redirect Based on carlustblog.com

Vulnerable URL:

POC:

 

 

carlustblog_com

 

 

 

Vulnerabilities Disclosure:

The vulnerabilities were reported to Amazon in 2014. Amazon has patch the vulnerabilities.

 

 

 

 

Related Articles:
http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2015/Jan/23
http://lists.openwall.net/full-disclosure/2015/01/12/2
http://www.tetraph.com/blog/computer-security/amazon-covert-redirect/
https://progressive-comp.com/?l=full-disclosure&m=142104346821481&w=1
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2015/06/amazon-covert-redirect_17.html
http://permalink.gmane.org/gmane.comp.security.fulldisclosure/1429
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120155176411897/
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/amazon-covert-redirect/
https://itswift.wordpress.com/2015/01/17/amazon-covert-redirect/
http://marc.info/?l=full-disclosure&m=142104346821481&w=4
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2015/01/amazon-covert-redirec
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-web-security/amazon-covert-redirect/

Attachments area
Preview YouTube video Amazon Covert Redirect Based on Kindle Daily Post, Omnivoracious, Car Lust & Open Redirect Security

Amazon Covert Redirect Based on Kindle Daily Post, Omnivoracious, Car Lust & Open Redirect Security

Alibaba Taobao OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

1688-taobao

 

Alibaba Taobao OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)




(1) Domain:
taobao.com

 

 

“Taobao (simplified Chinese: 淘宝网; traditional Chinese: 淘寶網; pinyin: Táobǎo Wǎng; literally: “searching for treasure website”) is a Chinese website for online shopping similar to eBay and Amazon that is operated in China by Alibaba Group. Founded by Alibaba Group on May 10, 2003, Taobao Marketplace facilitates consumer-to-consumer (C2C) retail by providing a platform for small businesses and individual entrepreneurs to open online stores that mainly cater to consumers in Chinese-speaking regions (Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) and also abroad. With around 760 million product listings as of March 2013, Taobao Marketplace is one of the world’s top 10 most visited websites according to Alexa. For the year ended March 31, 2013, the combined gross merchandise volume (GMV) of Taobao Marketplace and Tmall.com exceeded 1 trillion yuan.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Taobao web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.



The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Taobao.

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope”=get_user_info%2Cadd_share…

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “/authorize?” with parameter “&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html [1]

 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

When a logged-in Taobao user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto Taobao and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

A logged-in Taobao user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Taobao would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from Taobao to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Taobao directly. The number of Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, Taobao’s OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Taobao’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “https://computerpitch.wordpress.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
sohu.com

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do?bru=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

Vulnerable URL from Taobao that is related to sohu.com:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://sohu.com

 

POC:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

 

 

 

(2.3) The following URLs have the same vulnerabilities.
https://login.taobao.com/member/login.jhtml?sign=8uBo%2FBShyXsFVd4q%2FREkfg%3D%3D&timestamp=2014-03-19+09%3A24%3A22&sub=true&style=mini_top&need_sign=top&full_redirect=true&from=mini_top&from_encoding=utf-8&TPL_redirect_url=https%3A%2F%2Foauth.taobao.com%2Fauthorize%3Fstate%3D1%26response_type%3Dcode%26client_id%3D21112101%26redirect_uri%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.paidai.com%252Fuser%252Foauth_taobao.php

 

 

POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZVCZK03-Rw



Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html







(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.



 

Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore.
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/









Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-bug
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-service-exploit.html
https://twitter.com/essayjeans/status/558976811573321728
https://webtechwire.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/taobao-vulnerability/
http://inzeed.tumblr.com/post/119493913816/securitypost-itinfotech-continuan-los
http://essayjeans.lofter.com/post/1cc7459a_7069892
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/05/alibaba-taobao-service-exploit.html
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/2346030512014463745630/
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/alibaba-taobao-oauth-2-0
https://hackertopic.wordpress.com/2014/06/01/alibaba-taobao-bug/

 

 

 

===========

 

 


阿里巴巴 淘宝 网站 OAuth 2.0 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 (信息泄漏 & 公开重定向)




(1) 域名:

taobao.com



” 淘宝网是亚太地区较大的网络零售商圈,由阿里巴巴集团在2003年5月10日投资创立。淘宝网现在业务跨越C2C(个人对个人)、B2C(商家对个人)两 大部分。截止2014年,淘宝网注册会员超5亿人每天有超过1.2亿的活跃用户,在线商品数达到10亿件,淘宝网和天猫平台的交易额总额超过了1.5万 亿。” (百度百科)







(2) 漏洞描述:

阿里巴巴 淘宝 网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它进行隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。




这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。




 


(2.1) 漏洞细节:

Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 系统可能遭到攻击。更确切地说, Taobao 对 OAuth 2.0 系统的 parameter “&redirect_uri“ 验证不够充分。可以用来构造对 Taobao 的 URL跳转 攻击。

 

 

与此同时,这个漏洞可以用下面的参数来收集第三方 App 和 用户 的敏感信息(敏感信息包含在 HTTP header里),

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token,code…

“&scope”=get_user_info,email…

 

 

它也增加了对第三方网站 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

漏洞地点 “/authorize?”,参数”&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html [1]

 

 

 

同意三方 App 前:

当一个已经登录的 Taobao 用户点击上面的 URL ([1]), 对话框会询问他是否接受第三方 App 接收他的信息。如果同意,他会被跳转到 参数 “&redirect_uri” 的 URL。

 

 

如果没有登录的Taobao 用户点击 URL ([1]), 他登录后会发生同样的事情。

 

 

 

同意三方 App 后:

已经登录的 Taobao 用户 不会再被询问是否接受 三方 App。当他点击 URL ([1]) 时,他会被直接跳转到攻击者控制的页面。

 

 

如果 Taobao 用户没有登录,攻击依然可以在要求他登录的Taobao的对话框被确认后完成(这个过程不会提示任何和三方 App 有关的内容)。

 

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Taobao 一般会允许属于已被验证过得三方 App domain 的所有 URLs。 然而,这些 URLs 可以被操控。比如,参数 “&redirect_uri” 是被三方 App 设置的,但攻击者可以修改此参数的值。

 

 

因此,Taobao 用户意识不到他会被先从 Taobao 跳转到第三方 App 的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 Taobao 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。

 

 

因为 Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 客户很多,这样的攻击可以很常见。

 

 

在同意三方 App 之前,Taobao 的 OAuth 2.0 让用户更容易相信被跳转的页面是安全的。这增加了三方 App 被 URL跳转 攻击的成功率。

 

 

同意三方 App 后, 攻击者可以完全绕过 Taobao 的 URL跳转 验证系统。

 

 

 

 

(2.2) 用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 “http://lifegreen.lofter.com/“. 可以假定它是有害的,并且含有收集三方 App 和用户敏感信息的 code。

 

 

下面是一个有漏洞的三方 domain:
sohu.com

 

 

这个 domain 有漏洞的 URL:
http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do?bru=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 

 

Taobao 与 sohu.com 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://sohu.com

 

 

 

POC:
https://oauth.taobao.com/authorize?client_id=21263967&response_type=code&state=O2CRSF7bdf17633d9f4934bb7f4e937eef6d59&redirect_uri=http://store.tv.sohu.com/web/login.do%3Fbru%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fseasons%2F%25E7%25A5%25AD%25E6%2598%25A5.html

 



(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向?

隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS – Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向也可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF – Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。